5 data points show the career-stifling decisions working moms had to make over the last year

working mom
  • Working moms polled by Morning Consult and the New York Times turned down career opportunities this year.
  • From forgoing new responsibilities to quitting altogether, the pandemic hit working mothers hard.
  • Turning down those opportunities could also impact their future earnings and quality of life.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

The pandemic revealed just how thin the line between work and life is for American parents. Without adequate childcare, women in particular were forced to make some tough decisions this year that could harm their careers for years to come, according to new data out from the New York Times.

Throughout the pandemic, women have had to step back from professional life, with many exiting the labor force altogether, as childcare – and lack thereof – became an even greater issue across the economic spectrum. As Insider’s Ben Winck reported, JP Morgan said that a full economic recovery may not be enough to fully address gender gaps that the pandemic worsened. UBS said that school closures – alongside COVID fears – are the primary drivers behind labor shortages.

In a poll of 468 working moms the NYT and Morning Consult found:

  • 16% “did not pursue a promotion”
  • 23% didn’t apply for any new roles
  • 28% turned down new work responsibilities
  • 33% clocked fewer hours due to childcare issues
  • 20% went part-time

Moms of all economic classes worked less due to lack of childcare

Whitney Pesek, director of child care policy at the National Women’s Law Center, told Insider that the pandemic has been unique in impacting women across the board – previously, lower-income women were disproportionately impacted by childcare availability because they would generally have more unpredictable schedules or live in areas with less childcare available. While the issue of childcare was felt differently along income lines, “now we’re seeing more middle and high-income women also sounding the alarm about childcare because of the lack of slots.”

A study from the NWLC and Columbia University researchers found that making affordable childcare accessible to all who need it would boost the number of full-time working women with young kids by 17%.

An impact on future earnings could leave women further behind

Pesek said that women getting pushed out of the workforce, or having to take time off, doesn’t just impact them in the short-term: They’re also accumulating less income and savings for later in life.

“The double edged sword of that is that, while women end up with less retirement income than men, they also tend to usually need more retirement savings because women tend to live longer than men,” Pesek said. “Women are more likely to be single later in life and have higher health costs than men as they age.”

Women opting out of opportunities, or leaving the workforce altogether, could exacerbate already-persistent wage gaps. Those wage gaps also have their own share of inequity, with women of color facing even lower wages than many of their white counterparts.

“I think that we’re going to be studying the outcomes of this pandemic on women in the workforce for decades,” Pesek said.

While the fall of 2021 has loomed as a potential return to “normalcy” and work – especially as schools and childcare centers prepare to reopen – the rise of the Delta variant could also be threatening that.

“Women are having to rethink the plans again that they possibly laid for the fall thinking that there was light at the end of the tunnel and that they were going to be able to get back on track,” Pesek said.

Read the original article on Business Insider

Women and people of color are missing out on June’s celebrated wage and job growth

Unemployment benefits line
People line up to receive unemployment benefits.

  • June’s jobs report showed promising signs of recovery, with gains exceeding expectations.
  • But women and people of color are still seeing a different story as recovery continues.
  • More women rejoined the labor force, but the vast majority are unemployed.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

June’s jobs report brought some surprisingly optimistic figures. The economy added 850,000 jobs, healthily beating expectations and signaling that recovery may be on the horizon.

But, as with much of the pandemic recovery, the economic benefits are still uneven. For women and people of color, the unemployment situation is much more disparate – and it signals who might still be getting left behind amidst recovery.

‘We’re still in a crisis’

Insider’s Joseph Zeballos-Roig reported that June’s unemployment rate for Black Americans increased from May. Latino unemployment also remains far higher than the national average of 5.9%.

Those elevated unemployment rates come as 26 states move to end federal unemployment benefits ahead of their scheduled September expiration, which will impact about four million workers around the country.

“I do think we’re still in a crisis, we’re still looking at really high unemployment rates, especially for Black women and Latinas again, and for Black men, it’s back in the double digits. So it’s 10% for Black men in June,” Jasmine Tucker, the director of research at the National Women’s Law Center, told Insider. “If white men were at a double-digit unemployment rate, we would not be talking about ending these unemployment benefits in these states. We just 100%, we would not be doing it.”

Broadly, 148,000 women rejoined the labor force in June, and, according to an analysis from the NWLC, women made up 47.6% of jobs gains. But rejoining the labor force doesn’t mean that all of those women have a job – it means that those women are actively working or looking for work. In fact, the NWLC found that 97% of the women who rejoined the labor force are unemployed; the same is true for just 12% of the 232,000 men who rejoined. Tucker attributes that to sexism, and women potentially being judged harshly for leaving the labor force to be caregivers.

According to Tucker, women will need to see gains at this rate for nine months to reach pre-pandemic employment.

“That’s only going to get us back to February 2020. That’s not going to account for all of the people – just population growth – all of the people who would have entered the labor force between February and now,” Tucker said of those hypothetical nine months of gains. She added: “It would get us where we were, but not where we should have been.”

Those unemployed female and Black workers may also be missing out on the wage growth workers have seen in the past few months; it’s growth that’s likely temporary, according to a note from a Bank of America research team led by Michelle Meyer. That could only exacerbate pre-existing wage gaps.

Black families were also already at an economic disadvantage coming into the pandemic, according to new research from the JPMorgan Chase Institute. They had 44 cents to every dollar white families held in January 2020; Latino families had 58 cents. Throughout the pandemic, people of color were disproportionately impacted by the virus itself – which came with its own economic burden.

The inequities that still persist are on the radar of the Biden administration. Labor Secretary Marty Walsh told Insider that “our work has to be more focused, more intentional” in creating opportunities for people of color.

“Certainly, the unemployment rate for communities of color and women remains essentially unchanged in this report,” Walsh said. “I think, and the president feels, that we have a potentially once in a lifetime opportunity to make some significant changes to the unemployment system, as far as for people of color.”

Read the original article on Business Insider

A social experiment shows women may be as likely as men to accept a gender pay gap if they benefit from it

business meeting
Most women still make $0.84 on the dollar of what men earn.

  • Marlon Williams is an assistant professor of economics at the University of Dayton.
  • In a recent experiment, he found women were as likely as men to vote against closing the pay gap when they earn more money.
  • Williams hopes this research will lead people to consider how self-interest may be driving their arguments.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

The big idea

Women are just as inclined as men to vote against a policy to reduce a gender pay gap if they are personally benefiting from the status quo. This is one of the main findings of my new study, which was published in January 2021 in the journal Applied Economics Letters.

I conducted a series of laboratory experiments in which I recruited participants to do a 30-question quiz. The participants knew from the start that they would be paid based on the number of questions they answered correctly. In roughly half of the sessions, the quiz was written in a way to give men an advantage. I achieved this by choosing questions that were mainly on topics that surveys show men tend to be more interested in than women, such as sports and certain movie genres. The quiz for the other half of the sessions were designed in a similar way to give women an advantage.

In the version with a male bias, men answered an average of 21 questions correctly, while women answered only 13 right. This was meant to mimic the current real-world situation in which men, on average, earn more than women. The questions were carefully chosen so that the quiz that favored women had mirrored results: The average woman answered 21 correctly, the average man just 13.

Read more: I moved to the Alaskan Bush to become a teacher after COVID-19 ruined my plans. It’s wildly expensive, but I feel at home in my village of 270 people.

Three times at different stages of the experiment participants voted to either be paid $1 for every correct answer or to give the group that was at a disadvantage a leg up. If the second payment option won the majority vote, the disadvantaged participants would get $1.25 per right answer, while those who benefited from the biased test would receive just 85 cents.

In all three votes, which had similar results, I found that women were actually more likely than men to vote against the policy that would have led to a narrowing of the pay gap when they earned more money in the quiz. On average, 96.8% of women’s votes were against the proposed corrective payment policy when they were more likely to correctly answer the questions, compared with 90.5% of the men’s votes when they had the edge.

In addition, when women were at a disadvantage, they were more likely to vote in favor of the corrective policy, with 79.5% supporting it versus 73% for the men.

While social science laboratory experiments like mine cannot fully capture every nuance, I believe my qualitative results are similar to what we would find in the real world.

Why it matters

Debate over the gender pay gap can become quite heated.

The latest data from Pew Research Center show women make $0.84 on the dollar of what men earn – a gap that hasn’t changed much in recent years.

And surveys have found that men are more likely to oppose measures to correct this gap and even question whether the gap exists in the first place. A 2019 SurveyMonkey poll showed that 46% of men believe the gender pay gap “is made up to serve a political purpose” rather than a “legitimate issue.”

My research suggests women might feel the same if the positions were reversed. Additionally, it suggests that men would also likely be equally vociferous in calling for a narrowing of the gap if they found themselves in a world where they were holding the short end of the stick.

Ideally, I hope this research will lead people to reexamine the positions they hold on issues like this one and consider how self-interest may be driving their arguments. Maybe it can lead to more understanding and increase the focus in these debates on the available evidence.

What’s next

In my current and future work, I seek to experimentally determine people’s willingness to sacrifice personal financial gains in favor of an outcome that they see as serving the common good. This involves, for example, testing how much income the average employee or executive is willing to sacrifice to reduce income inequality.

Marlon Williams, assistant professor of economics, University of Dayton

The Conversation
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The American worker had been earning less throughout the pandemic. That ended in March.

restaurant worker New York City NYC
A restaurant worker wears a protective face mask and gloves in midtown as the city continues Phase 4 of re-opening following restrictions imposed to slow the spread of coronavirus on August 13, 2020 in New York City.

  • US wages went into pandemic-related decline in March 2020, and exceeded that level in March 2021, per BLS data
  • The indicator is the latest to surpass past highs as stimulus and reopening power the US rebound.
  • The boost was driven by stronger wage growth for low-wage workers, a group hit hard by lockdowns.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Various economic indicators are surpassing their pre-pandemic highs as stimulus and reopening drive the country toward a full recovery.

US wages are the latest to rebound.

Salaries and hourly wages finally leaped above their February 2020 peak in March 2021, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Employee payment across the country rose to a seasonally adjusted annual rate of $9.78 trillion from $9.67 trillion, marking a new record high and an eleventh consecutive climb.

By comparison, it took more than twice as long for wages to fully rebound from their decline during the Great Recession.

The sharp increase seen two months ago was powered by stronger wage growth for workers in food preparation and serving, cleaning, and individual care, a group hit hard by lockdowns. Those Americans have enjoyed a massive jump in wages from January to March as vaccines started to be rolled out and service jobs bounced back. Wage growth for managers, professionals, technicians, and office and administration workers remain below their pre-pandemic rates, albeit only slightly so.

The bounceback in low-wage income growth marks a positive development amid the largely uneven recovery. The white unemployment rate still sits significantly lower than that for Black and Asian Americans. And while wages are rebounding across racial and gender lines, the pandemic only exacerbated long-lasting inequalities.

More broadly, the labor market seemed to turn a corner in March. Payroll growth shot higher as stimulus and the easing of lockdown measures juiced the economic recovery. Gains were also strongest among leisure and hospitality businesses, some of the firms hit hardest by the virus and its fallout.

The labor market’s rebound is expected to have accelerated last month. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is set to publish April payroll growth data on Friday and reveal how reopening and warmer weather benefitted hiring. The median estimate from economists surveyed by Bloomberg calls for nearly 1 million nonfarm payroll additions. They also expect the unemployment rate to drop to 5.8% from 6%.

Economists got their first preview of April job creation Wednesday morning. The country’s private sector added 742,000 payrolls in April, according to ADP’s monthly employment report. That missed the median estimate of 873,000 private payrolls but still marked a fourth straight monthly gain.

“Service providers have the most to gain as the economy reopens, recovers, and resumes normal activities and are leading job growth in April,” Nela Richardson, chief economist at ADP, said.

[Editor’s note: This article has been updated to remove the Federal Reserve phrase classifying workers in food preparation and serving, cleaning, and individual care as “low-skill workers,” a term increasingly seen as problematic.]

Read the original article on Business Insider

These 8 charts show the glaring gap between men’s and women’s salaries in the US

town hall on gender and pay equity in Minneapolis
US Rep. Ilhan Omar poses for a photo with fellow panelists at a town hall meeting on gender pay gap and equity on April 24, 2019, in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

  • March 24 is Equal Pay Day, which reflects how many extra days women had to work to make as much as men did in 2020.
  • The gender wage gap persists, and women make 82 cents for every dollar a man makes.
  • These charts show the gap in pay varies widely based on location, race, and several other factors.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.
Men have earned more than women since 1979, the first year with available data.

Equal Pay Day reflects how many extra days women have to work to earn what men did in the previous year. This year’s Equal Pay Day falls on March 24. The Census Bureau wrote in a recent post that this is “earlier than it’s ever been since its inception in 1996,” suggesting a modest shrinking of the gender pay gap. 

Over half a century after the US passed the Equal Pay Act, American women still face a substantial gender wage gap across the spectrum. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research estimates that equal pay will not be reached until 2059.

Based on weekly earnings data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the gap has narrowed over time.

In the first quarter of 1979, median weekly earnings for men age 16 and over working full time was $408, compared to $251 for women. That is, women’s weekly earnings were 61.5% of men’s weekly earnings. There has been some progress over the years, and in the third quarter of 2020 women’s weekly earnings were 81.7% of men’s weekly earnings.

Overall, women who were full-time, year-round employees made 82.3 cents for every dollar men made in 2019, based on median earning data from the Census Current Population Survey. That means women are paid 17.7% less than men, earning $10,157 less than men.

The gender wage gap varies widely by state.

According to American Community Survey data from the US Census Bureau, the gender pay gap in the United States in 2019 was around 19%. This means that a woman who is at least 16 years old, working a full-time, year-round job, and who is part of the civilian employed population makes 81% as much as her male counterpart earns.

The pay gap varies, however, by state.

In Wyoming, for instance, the gender pay gap is 36.6%, the biggest wage gap in the nation based on those who are part of the “full-time, year-round civilian employed population 16 years and over with earnings” population. That is, median earnings of women who in this state make 63.4% of what men earn. In 33 states, the gender pay gap is larger than the national average.

Most states have implemented laws against gender discrimination, and the 1964 Civil Rights Act protects women at the federal level, yet disparities persist.

Vermont had the smallest pay gap in 2019 at 9%, with full-time, year-round women who are at least 16 and part of the civilian employed population making a median salary of $46,641, while men made $51,241.

Major cities show an even bigger discrepancy.

Around the US, salaries in large cities show an even greater range of pay discrepancy between men and women.

The American Association of University Women, a nonprofit that advocates for gender equality, examined how much women earn compared to men in 25 major metro areas using 2019 US Census data from the American Community Survey.

Out of the 25 cities, the narrowest gender wage gap overall is in Los Angeles, where women make approximately 90.6% of the median earnings for men, a pay gap of 9.4%. Detroit had the widest wage gap: Women’s median earnings of $44,486 in this city is 73.8% of men’s earnings of $60,278. That translates to a pay gap of 26.2%.

Overall, Black and Hispanic women face the biggest pay gap when comparing earnings to non-Hispanic white men.

Black and Hispanic women are most affected by the wage gap, especially when compared to non-Hispanic white men, who make up the largest demographic segment of the workforce.

We looked at the wage gap for different racial and ethnic groups using median earnings data for full-time, year-round workers from the US Census Bureau’s 2019 1-year American Community Survey.

Asian women face the smallest wage gap — they earn 91.4% of what non-Hispanic white men earned, resulting in a pay gap of just 8.5%. Non-Hispanic white women earn 78.1% of what non-Hispanic white men do, while Black women earn 61.1%. Hispanic women earn 53%, or a pay gap of 47%.

When compared to Black men, Black women earn 90.7% of what men earn, and Hispanic women make 80.6% of what Hispanic men do.

The larger disparity between non-Hispanic white men’s and women of color’s earnings could be attributed to the fact that “women of color suffer both because of their gender and their race,” according to an April 2016 report released by the Senate Joint Economic Committee’s Democratic Staff.

Another way of looking at that gap for women of different racial and ethnic groups is to consider when “equal pay day” for each group falls.

Number of days women have to work into the next year to earn as much as white men calendar graphic

Equal Pay Days further vary by race and ethnicity, in line with the pay discrepancies between non-Hispanic white men and women of different races and ethnicities.  

The above calendar graphic shows how many days into the next year a woman has to work in order to earn what a non-Hispanic white man would have earned in the previous year, using estimates from the American Association of University Women.

For example, a typical full-time, year-round employed Black female worker starting on January 1, 2020, would have finally earned on August 3, 2021, what a similarly employed non-Hispanic white male worker would have made over the course of 2020 alone. That means Black women have to work around seven extra months to earn the same as non-Hispanic men earned in a single year in 2020.

It takes full-time, year-round employed Asian American or Pacific Islander (AAPI) women the shortest time to make what non-Hispanic white men would have made the year before. It would take a female Asian American or Pacific Islander worker over two extra months in 2021, or until March 9, to earn what a non-Hispanic white man earned the year before.

However, pay gaps for Asian women vary further. Although AAPI women make 85 cents for every dollar non-Hispanic white men make, an analysis from the Center for American Progress finds Burmese woman makes just 52 cents for every dollar the median non-Hispanic white man makes, for instance.

Read more about equal pay day by race here.

Women with children gain no salary boost, while men with children are rewarded.

In 2015, women with children were earning roughly the same as women without children, $727 and $726 respectively. However, working fathers with children earned about $141 more than a men without children. 

That gap has slowly been closing since then, as 2019 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show that women with children now make slightly more than women without kids under 18 at home.

Men with children see an earnings boost, and the difference between their weekly take-home pay was typically $189 higher than their counterparts without kids in 2019.

For working women, the difference in earnings between women with and without children is minimal. Working mothers only made $30 compared to other working women in 2019.

While this disparity can be attributed to differences in careers and work hours between men and women who have children and those who do not, a 2016 report released by the Senate Joint Economic Committee Democratic Staff says that there is also a difference in how working mothers and fathers are perceived by management.

According to the report, some employers may view motherhood as a “signal of lower levels of commitment and professional competence.” Working fathers, on the other hand, may be viewed as having “increased work commitment and stability.”

Women’s earnings are lower than men’s over the course of a lifetime.

The gender pay gap exists for workers across a lifetime.

Using Census data from the Minnesota Population Center’s IPUMS program, we found that the median full-time, year-round male worker earns more than his female counterpart at every year of age.

The gap is narrower for younger workers, with the median 25-year-old woman earning about 91.1% of the median 25-year-old man. Meanwhile, the median 50-year-old woman earns just 76.9% of her 50-year-old male counterpart.

Women over the age of 75 are almost twice as likely to live in poverty, according to the Senate report. Many women that age didn’t work when they were younger, so they have fewer sources of retirement income than men their age.

In 1950, about 34% of American women were in the labor force, compared to about 86% of men, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. By 1980, the numbers were 52% and 77% respectively — and the numbers have largely plateaued since then.

Before the pandemic, the labor force participation rate for women was around 58% in February 2020 and around 56% in February 2021. The labor force participation rate for men was about 69% in February 2020 and about 67% in February 2021.

The number of women promoted to the highest levels within companies reveals unconscious biases.

Very few women are CEOs of major corporations, or in the C-level suite of executives running corporate America.

Data from a study put together by McKinsey & Co. and Lean In show how men are promoted up, while women fall by the wayside. Based on the latest report, only one in five C-level executives were women. Women of color are furthermore underrepresented at the executive level, making up less than 1 in 30 in the C-suite.

A recent IBM report also finds little change between leadership representation in 2019 and 2021. Based on the survey covering 10 industries from nine different regions, women made up just 10% of C-suite and 8% of executive board positions in 2019 and 2021.

The latest McKinsey report suggested that more women are working in senior positions, but it is still hard for women to move up from entry-level jobs into higher roles. “For every 100 men promoted to manager, only 85 women were promoted,” the report said, which affects the number of women being promoted to higher positions in the corporate pipeline.

However, women consistently ask for promotions and raises more. One of the reasons for the disparity between women asking for promotions and actually getting them was because when women negotiate, people like them less for it, according to a previous McKinsey study, covered by Insider, found.

Harvard Business Review found in its research that women ask for raises just as much as men, but men are more “successful” with their requests, with a success rate of 15% for women and 20% for men.

Read the original article on Business Insider

33-year low in female labor participation rate requires new childcare and paid-leave policies, JPMorgan says

Woman working in cafe
A woman works on a laptop at a restaurant’s outdoor seating as temperatures reached close to 70 degrees on March 11, 2021 in New York City.

  • Federal family-leave and childcare support policies can help close gender gaps, JPMorgan said.
  • Female labor participation sits at 33-year lows and well below mens’ level due to COVID-19 fallout.
  • Gender-responsive policies can counter the disproportionate hit women faced during the pandemic.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Full economic recovery in the US might not be enough to close gender gaps exacerbated by the pandemic, JPMorgan researchers said.

The coronavirus and its economic fallout disproportionately slammed American women, with female-dominated sectors like hospitality and education hit the hardest by lockdowns. The greater share of domestic work that women perform in American society also prompted many to leave work and focus on caretaking. Where men made up the bulk of job losses seen during the financial crisis, the current recession has seen job losses land more equally.

Women aren’t just losing or leaving their jobs, either; they’re exiting the labor force entirely. The female labor participation rate, while up from its pandemic lows, still sits at its lowest level in 33 years. More than 2.3 million women have left the US labor force since the pandemic began, versus nearly 1.8 million men exiting the workforce.

Reviving the broader economy should pull some women back into the labor force, the team led by Joyce Chang said in a note to clients, adding Congress can and should do more to close the gap. Federal paid-leave policies for mothers can alleviate the burdens of balancing work with early child care, as can federally guaranteed family leave. Public child care and education programs can also incentivize women to stay employed, according to the team.

The nation’s gender pay gap held at roughly 18% for the past decade, and that spread could widen by another five percentage points if the pandemic’s effects aren’t reversed, according to a National Bureau of Economic Research paper cited by JPMorgan. Recessions historically fuel a 2-point narrowing of the wage gap.

Closing the gender wage gap is good for growth, nevermind society

Promoting workplace equality also has a tangible effect on economic growth. Narrowing the labor-participation gap between men and women by just 25% could lift US gross domestic product by 2%, according to the International Labor Organization. Fully closing the gap would boost GDP by 5%, the International Monetary Fund said.

“Continued focus on gender-responsive policies is required to counter the disproportionate burden women face in the current crisis – and more importantly, to prevent the economic damage from outlasting the virus itself,” JPMorgan’s researchers said.

Some steps have already been taken to help working women. Democrats’ latest stimulus plan includes a child-tax-credit program that will give families with children under the age of 5 up to $3,600 per child over the course of 2021. Those with children aged 6 to 17 can receive up to $3,000 per child.

The package also includes $40 billion for child-care assistance. The average US household spends nearly 23% of its income on child-care costs, according to JPMorgan. The stimulus’ inclusion of a child tax credit and direct relief for care providers helps lower the burden for mothers hoping to keep their jobs while raising children.

Erasing such inequality stands to build a more robust economy after the pandemic, the researchers said. The coronavirus crisis has prompted discussions around family support and flexible work arrangements “that could yield steps forward in the future,” they added.

Read the original article on Business Insider

7 charts that show the glaring gap between men’s and women’s salaries in the US

town hall on gender and pay equity in Minneapolis
US Rep. Ilhan Omar poses for a photo with fellow panelists at a town hall meeting on gender pay gap and equity on April 24, 2019, in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

  • Not only is March Women’s History Month, but March 24 is Equal Pay Day for women.
  • Even though a lot of progress has been made, the gender wage gap persists.
  • That gap in pay varies widely based on location, race, and several other factors.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

March is not only Women’s History Month, where all the hard work and achievements of women are recognized, but March 24 marks this year’s Women’s Equal Pay Day.

The date refers to how many days into 2021 women had to work to make as much as men did in just 2020. Equal Pay Days further vary by race and ethnicity, in line with the pay discrepancies between non-Hispanic white men and women of different races and ethnicities.

And while women have gained important political power and some gains in the corporate pipeline, there is still work to be done to reach equality, especially when it comes to financial power.

Over half a century after the US passed the Equal Pay Act, American women still face a substantial gender wage gap across the spectrum. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research estimates that equal pay will not be reached until 2059.

Overall, women who were full-time, year-round employees made 82.3 cents for every dollar men made in 2019, based on median earning data from the Census Current Population Survey. That means women are paid 17.7% less than men, earning $10,157 less than men.

The seven charts below illustrate the significant pay discrepancies between men and women based on race, age, geographical location, and more.

The gender wage gap varies widely by state.

According to American Community Survey data from the US Census Bureau, the gender pay gap in the United States in 2019 was around 19%. This means that a woman who is at least 16 years old, working a full-time, year-round job, and who is part of the civilian employed population makes 81% as much as her male counterpart earns.

The pay gap varies, however, by state.

In Wyoming, for instance, the gender pay gap is 36.6%, the biggest wage gap in the nation based on those who are part of the “full-time, year-round civilian employed population 16 years and over with earnings” population. That is, median earnings of women who in this state make 63.4% of what men earn. In 33 states, the gender pay gap is larger than the national average.

Most states have implemented laws against gender discrimination, and the 1964 Civil Rights Act protects women at the federal level, yet disparities persist.

Vermont had the smallest pay gap in 2019 at 9%, with full-time, year-round women who are at least 16 and part of the civilian employed population making a median salary of $46,641, while men made $51,241.

Major cities show an even bigger discrepancy.

Around the US, salaries in large cities show an even greater range of pay discrepancy between men and women.

The American Association of University Women, a nonprofit that advocates for gender equality, examined how much women earn compared to men in 25 major metro areas using 2019 US Census data from the American Community Survey.

Out of the 25 cities, the narrowest gender wage gap overall is in Los Angeles, where women make approximately 90.6% of the median earnings for men, a pay gap of 9.4%. Detroit had the widest wage gap: Women’s median earnings of $44,486 in this city is 73.8% of men’s earnings of $60,278. That translates to a pay gap of 26.2%.

Overall, Black and Hispanic women face the biggest pay gap when comparing earnings to non-Hispanic white men.

Black and Hispanic women are most affected by the wage gap, especially when compared to non-Hispanic white men, who make up the largest demographic segment of the workforce.

We looked at the wage gap for different racial and ethnic groups using median earnings data for full-time, year-round workers from the US Census Bureau’s 2019 1-year American Community Survey.

Asian women face the smallest wage gap — they earn 91.4% of what non-Hispanic white men earned, resulting in a pay gap of just 8.5%. Non-Hispanic white women earn 78.1% of what non-Hispanic white men do, while Black women earn 61.1%. Hispanic women earn 53%, or a pay gap of 47%.

When compared to Black men, Black women earn 90.7% of what men earn, and Hispanic women make 80.6% of what Hispanic men do.

The larger disparity between non-Hispanic white men’s and women of color’s earnings could be attributed to the fact that “women of color suffer both because of their gender and their race,” according to an April 2016 report released by the Senate Joint Economic Committee’s Democratic Staff.

Another way of looking at that gap for women of different racial and ethnic groups is to consider when “equal pay day” for each group falls.

Number of days women have to work into the next year to earn as much as white men calendar graphic

The above calendar graphic shows how many days into the next year a woman has to work in order to earn what a non-Hispanic white man would have earned in the previous year, using estimates from the American Association of University Women.

Equal Pay Day for all women falls this year on March 24. This day falls much later in the year for some racial and ethnic groups.

For example, a typical full-time, year-round employed Black female worker starting on January 1, 2020, would have finally earned on August 3, 2021, what a similarly employed non-Hispanic white male worker would have made over the course of 2020 alone. That means Black women have to work around seven extra months to earn the same as non-Hispanic men earned in a single year in 2020.

It takes full-time, year-round employed Asian American or Pacific Islander (AAPI) women the shortest time to make what non-Hispanic white men would have made the year before. It would take a female Asian American or Pacific Islander worker over two extra months in 2021, or until March 9, to earn what a non-Hispanic white man earned the year before.

However, pay gaps for Asian women vary further. Although AAPI women make 85 cents for every dollar non-Hispanic white men make, an analysis from the Center for American Progress finds Burmese woman makes just 52 cents for every dollar the median non-Hispanic white man makes, for instance.

Read more about equal pay day by race here.

Women with children gain no salary boost, while men with children are rewarded.

In 2015, women with children were earning roughly the same as women without children, $727 and $726 respectively. However, working fathers with children earned about $141 more than a men without children. 

That gap has slowly been closing since then, as 2019 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show that women with children now make slightly more than women without kids under 18 at home.

Men with children see an earnings boost, and the difference between their weekly take-home pay was typically $189 higher than their counterparts without kids in 2019.

For working women, the difference in earnings between women with and without children is minimal. Working mothers only made $30 compared to other working women in 2019.

While this disparity can be attributed to differences in careers and work hours between men and women who have children and those who do not, a 2016 report released by the Senate Joint Economic Committee Democratic Staff says that there is also a difference in how working mothers and fathers are perceived by management.

According to the report, some employers may view motherhood as a “signal of lower levels of commitment and professional competence.” Working fathers, on the other hand, may be viewed as having “increased work commitment and stability.”

Women’s earnings are lower than men’s over the course of a lifetime.

The gender pay gap exists for workers across a lifetime.

Using Census data from the Minnesota Population Center’s IPUMS program, we found that the median full-time, year-round male worker earns more than his female counterpart at every year of age.

The gap is narrower for younger workers, with the median 25-year-old woman earning about 91.1% of the median 25-year-old man. Meanwhile, the median 50-year-old woman earns just 76.9% of her 50-year-old male counterpart.

Women over the age of 75 are almost twice as likely to live in poverty, according to the Senate report. Many women that age didn’t work when they were younger, so they have fewer sources of retirement income than men their age.

In 1950, about 34% of American women were in the labor force, compared to about 86% of men, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. By 1980, the numbers were 52% and 77% respectively — and the numbers have largely plateaued since then.

Before the pandemic, the labor force participation rate for women was around 58% in February 2020 and around 56% in February 2021. The labor force participation rate for men was about 69% in February 2020 and about 67% in February 2021.

The number of women promoted to the highest levels within companies reveals unconscious biases.

Very few women are CEOs of major corporations, or in the C-level suite of executives running corporate America.

Data from a study put together by McKinsey & Co. and Lean In show how men are promoted up, while women fall by the wayside. Based on the latest report, only one in five C-level executives were women. Women of color are furthermore underrepresented at the executive level, making up less than 1 in 30 in the C-suite.

Since 2015, there’s been an increase in the share of women in the C-Suite, while women in lower-level management roles have seen a smaller increase since that year. 

A recent IBM report also finds little change between leadership representation in 2019 and 2021. Based on the survey covering 10 industries from nine different regions, women made up just 10% of C-suite and 8% of executive board positions in 2019 and 2021.

The latest McKinsey report suggested that more women are working in senior positions, but it is still hard for women to move up from entry-level jobs into higher roles. “For every 100 men promoted to manager, only 85 women were promoted,” the report said, which affects the number of women being promoted to higher positions in the corporate pipeline.

However, women consistently ask for promotions and raises more. One of the reasons for the disparity between women asking for promotions and actually getting them was because when women negotiate, people like them less for it, according to a previous McKinsey study, covered by Insider, found.

According to Lean In, women who negotiate are more likely than men who negotiate to receive feedback that they are “intimidating,” “too aggressive,” or “bossy.”

Another poll by American Express and The New York Women’s Foundation found that less than one-third of women were comfortable with calling themselves ambitious. According to psychologists interviewed by Insider, the reasoning behind this is that the word could be seen as aggressive.   

Harvard Business Review found in its research that women ask for raises just as much as men, but men are more “successful” with their requests, with a success rate of 15% for women and 20% for men.

Read the original article on Business Insider

These 15 charts show the inequalities Black Americans still face

Angela Davis
Civil rights activist Angela Davis pumps her fist in solidarity during a Juneteenth protest against police brutality as longshoremen shut down the Port of Oakland and 28 other ports along the west coast on Friday, June 19, 2020, in Oakland, California.

  • February is Black History Month.
  • Although there’s been some progress toward equality for Black Americans, there’s a long way to go.
  • From employment data to wealth, these charts look at inequality for Black Americans over time.
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

February is Black History Month, when the achievements of Black Americans are recognized and celebrated.

Although the US has come a long way in working toward equity in the workplace and recognizing the work and contributions of Black Americans, there is still a long way to go to achieve full equality. That can be seen in figures like the Black-white wealth gap, Black-white wage gap, high unemployment rates for Black Americans even before the pandemic, and low representation in the c-suites of America’s largest companies.

The COVID-19 pandemic has amplified many of those inequities. The unemployment rate for both Black men and women spiked higher than white men and women during the spring, and the rate for Black men is still higher among these four demographics. It has also affected their businesses and the strides they have made in the workplace. Research shows that there have also been more Black deaths from the novel coronavirus than among other racial and ethnic groups.

We decided to look at the impact coronavirus has had on Black Americans and data that highlights the white-Black gap.

The following 15 charts show disparities and inequalities that still exist for Black Americans.

The employment-to-population ratio is a popular metric to look at how much of the working-age population is employed in the labor force. This ratio has been lower for Black Americans over the years compared to white or Hispanic Americans.

This ratio looks at share of the population in each race or ethnicity with a job. Although the ratio for Black Americans has increased in the years following the Great Recession, the rate has historically been lower for Black Americans than white or Hispanic and Latino Americans. 

The employment-to-population ratio for Black Americans was 59.3% in February 2020 and dropped to 48.8% in April 2020 when millions of Americans were laid off or had to leave the workforce during the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic.

White Americans saw a similar drop from 61.3% to 51.7%, but the ratio at the end of 2020 was higher than for Black Americans. Although the employment-to-population ratio increased for all of these demographics since the spring, they are still below pre-pandemic rates. 

Layoffs have negatively impacted workers, especially Black workers. A Morning Consult poll, reported by Insider in April, found nearly 20% of Black Americans said that they knew someone in their household that had lost their job amid the crisis.

Labor force participation has been low for Black Americans. At the end of December 2020, the rate for Black Americans was 1.8 percentage points lower than the rate for white Americans.

The labor force participation rate includes people who are working or actively looking for work.

The policy institute Center for American Progress wrote in an analysis that the gap between white and Black workers for both the employment-population ratio and labor force participation rate has narrowed over time. Right before the pandemic hit, the rate was 63.1% for Black Americans and 63.2% for white Americans in February 2020. Although the rate has fluctuated for Black Americans since the Great Recession, the rate for white Americans has steadily dropped.

Because of the effects of the pandemic, labor force participation has dropped for white, Black, and Hispanic Americans, as people have faced layoffs and stopped seeking work. However, Black and Hispanic Americans saw a bigger drop in April than white Americans. All rates were still below pre-pandemic rates at the end of 2020.

Referrals can make it easier for people to connect with employers, but this can impact Black Americans seeking work. A PayScale report covered by NBC found that people who received referrals were “overwhelmingly white men” which PayScale Vice President Lydia Frank said makes sense given their labor force participation.

The unemployment rate for Black Americans has been roughly double the unemployment rate among white workers for most of the years since this figure was tracked.

The pandemic has disproportionately affected the employment of Black and Hispanic workers. The Economic Policy Institute wrote in an analysis that Black workers are less likely to be in jobs that can be done remotely and more likely to be in jobs considered essential or in jobs that have experienced major job losses amid the pandemic.

However, Black Americans had a higher unemployment rate even before the devastating impact of the pandemic on workers. Although the unemployment rate for Black Americans fell from 16.8% in March 2010 to 6.0% in February 2020, these rates were still higher than the unemployment rate for white Americans.

The Center for American Progress wrote in its analysis that the Black unemployment rate has consistently been about double that of the white unemployment rate since this figure was first tracked. It only was a little less than double the rate of white unemployment around the Great Recession.

The unemployment rate is still high for both demographics after falling in recent months, but getting Black workers back to work may be especially difficult. Olugbenga Ajilore, senior economist at the Center for American Progress previously told Insider that Black Americans tend to be the first ones to lose their jobs in a recession and last to regain them.

Black men have had high unemployment rates over the years, and the rate is almost double the unemployment rate of white men at the end of 2020.

The unemployment rate for Black men has been higher than for Black women and white Americans over time. The unemployment rate for Black women was a few percentage points higher than Black men during April and May, however, but has since fallen. All rates are still higher than they were before the pandemic.

“For men, the Black-white unemployment gap is mostly due to high labor force exit rates for African Americans,” The Center for American Progress wrote in an analysis.

There were about 125,000 Black-owned businesses in 2018. The pandemic has been hard for small businesses, including Black-owned businesses.

The number of Black-owned businesses has grown in recent years, especially for Black women. In the most recent survey conducted by the Census Bureau, there were 124,551 Black-owned businesses, with most of these businesses in healthcare and social assistance. The Census Bureau wrote the share of Black-owned businesses in this particular sector was 28.5%, or over 35,000 businesses, “the highest percentage of any minority group.”

The pandemic has been especially hard on Black-owned businesses. A New York Fed report found that the number of active Black business owners fell by 41% between February and April 2020, nearly double the overall closure rate of 22%.

“Data from counties nationwide show Black-owned firms are more likely to be located in COVID-19 hot spots, whereas white-owned firms are less likely to be in the most heavily affected areas,” the authors wrote in the report as one of the reasons to explain this drop.

But McKinsey notes that the economic state of some Black entrepreneurs were already struggling. According to McKinsey, 58% of Black-owned businesses were already “at risk of financial distress”, compared to 27% of white-owned businesses.

The Black-white wage gap continues to exist. Black women only make about 66% of what white men make.

Black women make 90.7% of what Black men make. Among respondents on the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey who described themselves as being a single race, this is the highest share of what women made as a percent of men in the same demographic. However, they also make less than what Asian and white women and men make.

The wages of Black workers have historically been lower than those of white workers. This gap has been growing, as noted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, citing research that finds factors like discrimination and opportunity differences contribute to this gap.

The gap can be seen by how much Black women make compared to white men. White men’s median earnings were $57,003 in 2019 per the American Community Survey, while Black women made $37,402. That is, Black women made about 66% of what white men made. Among the different demographics, Asian women were closest to making what white men made with a median earnings of $56,001.

White households have held the most wealth since 1989; the aggregate wealth of Black households was about 4.5% that of white wealth in the third quarter of 2020.

The aggregate wealth for Black Americans is much smaller than the wealth of white Americans. At the end of 2020, white household wealth was nearly $100 trillion compared to nearly $5 trillion for Black households.

The Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland wrote in its research that the income gap is the “primary driver” of the Black-white wealth gap and contributes to this continuation of Black wealth falling behind white wealth.

The share of wealth held by Black households has not changed much over the years. In the third quarter of 1989, white households held 90.6% of the total wealth compared to 3.8% of Black households. In the third quarter of 2020, white households held 84.6% of the total wealth compared to 3.8% held by Black households.  

Even among people in the highest income percentile, white families have more wealth than Black families in the same household income bracket, according to an analysis by Brookings of the Federal Reserve data. 

“White families receive much larger inheritances on average than Black families,” Brookings wrote.

The Economic Policy Institute wrote that Black Americans historically have had high unemployment rates, low wages, and less savings putting them at already vulnerable financial state compared to white Americans.

“This prior insecurity has magnified the current economic damage to these workers and their families,” the Economic Policy Institute wrote about the pandemic’s negative impact on Black workers.

The number of Black CEOs of Fortune 500 and S&P 500 companies has barely changed over the past two decades.

There has been a lack of diversity in the c-suite. The number of Black, Hispanic, and Asian CEOs in Fortune 500 and S&P 500 companies has doubled from 4.3% in 2004 to 9.5% in 2020 per a report from Crist Kolder Associates. However, the number for Black Americans in these companies has not changed much over the past two decades.

According to the report, there are only five Black CEOS, one less than the reported figure in 2004. This means Black CEOs make up less than one percent of the total CEOs in these companies.

Unlike CEOs, the number of Black CFOs has increased in these companies since 2004, and this number hit the double digits in 2017.

But there is still a long way to go for Black representation at the top of the corporate ladder.

“Even the most advanced companies, with regards to diversity and inclusion, are still struggling to advance Black and brown employees from middle management into more senior positions,” Stephanie Creary, assistant professor of management at The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania previously told Insider.

The Fortune 500 companies have lacked Black representation over the past decades. There have only been 19 Black CEOs since the 1955 Fortune 500 list.

There is also very little Black female representation in the c-suite. Roz Brewer is stepping down as Starbucks’ chief operating officer at the end of February to become the CEO of Walgreens. She will be one of five Black CEOs of a Fortune 500 company, but Merck’s CEO Ken Frazier is retiring this year. She will also be the only Black female CEO of a Fortune 500 company.

Although Congress has become more diverse, Black representation in the House of Representatives and Senate is still low.

In politics, diversity has also increased over the years. For instance, President Joe Biden said his cabinet would be “the most diverse in history.” And per Insider’s analysis, Biden’s Cabinet and White House staff are made up of at least 50% people of color.

Year after year, there have been more Black members in Congress, and there have been 50 Black voting members since the 115th in 2017 congress. According to Pew Research, the 117th Congress is the most diverse Congress yet with 59 Black members, excluding non-voting members and commissioners. Pew Research wrote that the majority of non-white members in Congress are Democrats.

Black Americans make up a smaller share of many managerial and professional positions compared to other races and ethnicities.

We can also look at the highest-paying major occupational category, management and professional occupations, to see how many Black Americans hold these roles compared to other demographics. According to an analysis of employment data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 55% percent of employed Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations, while 32% of employed Blacks work in this category.

Among employed men, 26% of Black men worked in this highest-paying occupational category and among employed women, 37% of Black women worked in this category.

As Insider previously reported, this may be because of “racist hiring practices that kept Blacks out of business for decades under Jim Crow” and prejudices in the workplace.

The share of Black households that own their own homes has been historically lower than white households.

Insider wrote in a previous analysis about systemic racism in the US that “lower incomes and higher rates of poverty, combined with difficulties in getting mortgage approval, mean that homeownership rates for Black Americans remain low.”

And the Urban Institute found that in every US city with large Black populations, there is a homeownership rate gap between white and Black Americans.

Over the years, homeownership rates have been much higher for white Americans than Black Americans. The homeownership rate for white Americans has been around 75% while Black homeownership has been around between 40% to around 50%. Homeownership for Black Americans hit a low of 40.6% in the second quarter of 2019. In the fourth quarter of 2020 alone, the homeownership rate was about 1.7 times higher than that of Black Americans.

White Americans continue to be more likely than Black Americans to have a bachelor’s or graduate degree.

A higher share of white Americans have a bachelor’s or graduate degree compared to the share of Black Americans. Of Black Americans who were 25 years or older in 2019, 13.9% had a bachelor’s degree, compared to 21.3% of white Americans.

Student debt is also a bigger burden on Black Americans. According to Brookings, Black borrowers graduate with $7,400 more student loan debt on average than white borrowers. Insider previously reported that about 87% of black students borrow federal loans to attend four-year colleges, compared to about 60% of white students.

The pandemic not only has largely impacted employment but the health of Black Americans. The death ratio for Black Americans to non-Hispanic white Americans was 1.9.

Based on data updated as of February 18 from the CDC, coronavirus cases, deaths, and hospitalizations were all higher for Black Americans than for non-Hispanic white Americans. There have also been previous CDC reports that show the disproportionate impact of the pandemic on Black Americans. 

The COVID Tracking Project shows similar results. Based on this data as of February 24, 70,215 Black Americans have died. That is 1.4 times higher than the coronavirus death rate of white Americans.

A study, previously reported by Insider, with over 18 million participants found Black people in the US and UK are twice as likely to contract the novel coronavirus than white people. The Mayo Clinic wrote that one reason for more COVID-19 cases for people of color could be because they are more likely to have underlying health conditions.

They may also be in jobs that require close contact with other people, putting their health at risk amid the pandemic.

For instance, EPI wrote Black workers make up 11.9% of the workforce but 17.0% of frontline workers, including a high share in public transit and trucking or warehousing. This can put their health at risk while working closely with others and not being able to work these jobs from home.  

The CDC looked at the 6.7 million people who received at least one dose of the coronavirus vaccine and where their race or ethnicity is known. Among the known yet limited data, 359,934 were Black compared to over 4 million white Americans.

Since the vaccination was first distributed in the US, there have been over 66 million vaccines administered per KFF‘s tracking data.

But the distribution of the vaccine among racial and ethnic groups may differ.

“Based on vaccinations with known race/ethnicity, the share of vaccinations among Black people is smaller than their share of cases in all 16 reporting states and smaller than their share of deaths in 15 states,” KFF wrote in January.

A CDC report takes a deeper dive of the demographics for people who have received at least one dose between December 14, 2020 and January 14, 2021. Race and ethnicity data were only available for 6.7 million people, or 51.9% of the vaccine recipients, so this data is limited and doesn’t give a full picture of all Americans who have been vaccinated.

Among those recipients for whom race was known, non-Hispanic white Americans made up the largest share who received at least one dose at 60.4%, while only 5.4% were Black. Again, it is possible that more Black Americans received the dose, given the race for nearly half of the reported data is unknown.

Insider’s analysis of six states with reported vaccination data by race and ethnicity and that are among the states with the 10 largest Black populations shows Black Americans have a lower share than white Americans in receiving the vaccine. Insider did note that it was still early on in the rollout of the vaccine.

But some Black Americans are unsure whether they are getting the vaccine. A Pew Research survey in November found that only 42% of Black Americans said they would probably or definitely get the vaccine.

“It’s not so much that Black people or other minorities are unwilling to take [the vaccines], but there is really unequal access to the cutting edge of medicine and medical technology — and that is, in some respects, a bigger problem than reticence to take new treatments,” Tina Sacks, assistant professor at UC Berkeley’s School of Social Welfare previously told Insider.

The share of Black Americans without health insurance in 2019 was about double the rate for white Americans.

Health coverage is especially important amid the pandemic.

“Members of racial and ethnic minority groups are more likely to encounter barriers to getting care, such as a lack of health insurance or not being paid when missing work to get care,” Mayo Clinic wrote.

And more Black Americans are uninsured than white Americans. Based on 2019 data from the Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey, 9.6% of people without health insurance are Black compared to 5.2% of non-Hispanic white. 

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