2 long-time Amazon insiders wrote a book on how the company runs – here are the best anecdotes and quotes

Jeff Bezos
Amazon has many unique corporate practices, like 20 minutes of silence at the beginning of every important meeting.

  • Kevin J. Delaney is the founder of Reset Work, a newsletter about work and leadership in the pandemic era and beyond.
  • This post is part of Reset Work’s weekly business book briefing, republished with permission.
  • In it, Delaney breaks down “Working Backwards,” a new book from Amazon alums Colin Bryar and Bill Carr.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

Much of the coverage of Jeff Bezos’s recent announcement that he plans to cede the CEO role at Amazon noted the retailer’s idiosyncratic corporate practices. Perhaps most famous of them is the fact that important meetings at Amazon begin with 20 minutes of silence. During that time, executives quietly read six-page narrative memos presenting the matter to be discussed. 

Two Amazon alums, Colin Bryar and Bill Carr, just published a book called “Working Backwards” that walks in detail through how the company arrived at such singular practices. It offers advice on how you might adopt them at your own workplace (assuming, for example, you and your colleagues are game to spend long stretches reading in each other’s company.)   

The book’s name comes from Amazon’s product development process, which involves working backwards from the desired customer experience to decide what to build. 

Bryar worked at Amazon for 12 years as an executive, including two where he was Bezos’s technical advisor, effectively his chief of staff. (Bryar was preceded in that role by Andy Jassy, the incoming CEO.) Carr was at Amazon for 15 years and played a lead role in its digital media businesses, including Prime Video and Amazon Music. 

At the core of Amazon’s approach are 14 leadership principles, first codified in 2005 as 10 principles. They start with “customer obsession” and taking ownership but also include quirky statements such as “leaders are right a lot” and “leaders do not believe their or their team’s body odor smells of perfume.” (That’s part of a principle about being self-critical.) Amazon job interviews are structured to probe whether the candidates demonstrate aptitude for each of the principles. You can read the full list on Amazon’s website. 

Bryar and Carr cite a saying repeated at Amazon: “Good intentions don’t work. Mechanisms do.” (p. 17) The company has tried to systematize its practices – or mechanisms – amid its rapid growth. Here are some of the more interesting ones: 

  • The six-page memo. The company in 2004 banned PowerPoint, which until then had been the default for its managers. The reasoning was that six-page narrative memos were much better at conveying the nuances of a business than bullet-pointed slides, and that preparing the memos was valuable for forcing teams to refine their ideas. Amazon executives spend the first part of the meetings reading the memos, so everyone is focused on the matter and discussions pick up from there. Bryar and Carr include an example memo (p. 84) and suggestions for how to approach them. They relate that Bezos, among the most engrossed readers of the memos, said that he reads them assuming each sentence wrong until he can prove otherwise.
  • Product design by press release. Often before they commit to building new products or services, Amazon managers write fake press releases describing them. The idea – central to the “working backwards” approach – is to clarify what the benefit to the customer will be, and magnify the focus on what will differentiate this product from anything else. The short press releases are followed by FAQ sections, which aim to address some of the most pointed questions facing the project. They write the press releases so early in coming up with an idea that most of the new products in the releases are never pursued. 
  • “Bar raisers” for hiring. Specially trained Amazon employees participate in the hiring process as “bar raisers,” providing a dispassionate view on whether the desired candidate is right for the company and wielding a (rarely exercised) veto over the final decision. The idea is to counterbalance many managers’ tendency to want to hire quickly so not to fall behind, and to ensure the process is thorough and structured properly. Bryar and Carr detail the structure, which includes assigning members of the hiring committee specific company principles to probe the candidate on, and written interview reports they’re required to complete. 
  • A focus on “controllable input metrics.” Managers traditionally focus on the output metrics of a company, like revenue and profit. But Amazon believes that managers should focus at least as much on the metrics for inputs they directly control – such as product selection, price, or convenience – that ultimately have the greatest impact on the outputs. Bryar and Carr spend a lot of time on how Amazon leadership uses such data, and acknowledge that there’s a lot of trial and error involved in determining the right input metrics to track.
  • Vesting responsibility and control in a single project leader. The authors write that Bezos has been obsessed as the company has grown with minimizing the coordination and communication required of teams for them to move forward with a project, and ensuring that someone is totally focused on its success. One part of the approach was to have “two-pizza” teams – groups of 10 or fewer employees (the number that could be fed by two pizzas) with responsibility for specific product initiatives. That evolved over time into what it calls a “separable, single-threaded team” which has relative autonomy and works only on the specific feature. Amazon’s approach is similar to how Apple has a “directly responsible individual” charged with making sure a project gets done.

To be sure…

  • This book is very careful to not veer into anything sharply critical, and completely omits any discussion of controversial topics like Amazon’s labor practices. As I was reading the section about how great its hiring process is, I kept thinking back to all of the stories about executive mis-hires in Brad Stone’s “The Everything Store” that weren’t acknowledged here. (Stone has another book on Bezos and Amazon due out in May, which will surely be more critical than “Working Backwards.”) 
  • The authors left Amazon in 2010 and 2014. They note in places that what they’re writing is based on conversations with other executives there since then. But presumably some of the practices described in the book have changed, or will eventually. Which makes this less of a static rule book, and more of a menu of ideas you could try in your own organization. 
  • The second section of the book describes how Amazon’s practices and leadership principles applied in the creation of the Kindle, Amazon Prime, Prime Video, and Amazon Web Services. As recounted, a lot of that history is familiar, and adds little to the understanding of the practices detailed in the first half. You could read just up to page 151 and take away most of the lessons of the book. For those wanting an even quicker read, Bryar and Carr nicely summarize the takeaways from the book in a two-page section beginning on page 261.

Memorable anecdotes and trivia:

  • Bezos always wanted the company to underpromise and overdeliver in order to exceed customer expectations. Early on, the company said on its site that it was shipping books by first-class mail, when in fact it was generally sending shipments by faster priority mail and then telling customers in confirmation emails that they had gotten a complimentary upgrade. (p. 9)
  • Amazon once had an elaborate system it called New Project Initiatives used to prioritize what teams hoped to pursue every quarter. The process was onerous and too frequently disheartening, as a faceless process effectively killed off some of the best ideas. (p. 61)
  • In early 2004, Bezos and Bryar on a business flight read an essay titled “The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within,” by information visualization specialist Edward Tufte, which crystallized their thinking about the need to ditch PowerPoint. “From now on your presentation software is Microsoft Word, not PowerPoint. Get used to it,” Tufte advised. (p. 81)
  • Every two years, corporate executives including Bezos had to spend a few days as a customer-service agent. One day while Bezos was shadowing an agent, she took a call from a customer whose furniture had arrived damaged and knew which item it was because there had been recurring issues. That led Bezos, inspired by the Toyota idea of an Andon Cord, to add big red buttons to agents’ product screens that would let them freeze the sale of any item until a problem was resolved. (p. 146)
  • Prior to the launch of the Kindle, Carr didn’t think Amazon should make its own e-reader hardware, because of the expense and its lack of experience doing so. But his boss used the press release technique, and said that the company needed to build or buy the hardware expertise required to make a reading device that was tightly integrated with its e-book store. (p. 178)
  • Bezos sent senior Amazon executives an email in mid-October 2004 saying that the company needed to build and launch a shipping membership program by the end of the year. He gave the executives just 11 weeks during its busiest sales season to develop what would become Amazon Prime, announced only slightly behind his desired timeline in February 2005. (p. 188)

Choice quotes:

  • “Our culture is four things: customer obsession instead of competitor obsession; willingness to think long term, with a longer investment horizon than most of our peers; eagerness to invent, which of course goes hand in hand with failure; and then, finally, taking professional pride in operational excellence.” – Bezos (p. x)
  • “In a period of torrid headcount growth, founders and early employees often feel that they’re losing control of the company – it has become something different than what they set out to create. Looking back, they realize that the root cause of the problem can be traced to an ill-defined or absent hiring process. They were hiring scores of people who would change the company culture rather than those who would embody, reinforce, and add to it.” (p. 32)
  • “I heard [Bezos] say many times that if we wanted Amazon to be a place where builders can build, we needed to eliminate communication, not encourage it… Jeff’s vision was that we needed to focus on loosely coupled interaction via machines through well-defined APIs rather than via humans through emails and meetings.” (p. 61) 
  • “The best way to fail at inventing something is by making it somebody’s part-time job.”- Amazon executive Dave Limp (p. 75)
  • “Be stubborn on the vision but flexible on the details.” (p. 78)
  • “We had freed ourselves of the quantitative demands of Excel, the visual seduction of PowerPoint, and the distracting effect of personal performance. The idea had to be in the writing.” (p. 104)

The bottom line is that “Working Backwards” is a thought-provoking read if you’re looking for ideas for how to work differently or improve how your team or your organization operate. For me, it was like reading Ray Dalio’s “Principles” – you might disagree with some portion of the authors’ views, but you can constructively engage with them. And it’s a book from which you can take away useful practices – like six-page memos, bar raisers, or fake press releases – even if you only read half of it. 

All page numbers referenced above are for the hardcover edition.

Kevin J. Delaney is cofounder of Reset Work, a newsletter about managing yourself, your team, and your business in this moment and beyond. He was formerly a senior editor at The New York Times, founding editor in chief of Quartz, and managing editor of The Wall Street Journal Online. Sign up for Reset Work’s free newsletter.

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3 ways the US can improve COVID contact tracing efforts and encourage honest participation

A person gets a temperature check before entering an Apple store on June 22, 2020 in the Brooklyn Borough of New York City.
The US has a poor success rate when it comes to contact tracing coronavirus infections thus far.

  • The US has notably been unsuccessful in using contact tracing to reduce COVID-19 outbreaks.
  • A recent study suggests that more than 40% of people would not speak to public health officials when contacted.
  • Kellogg School clinical professor, Sarit Markovich, says that to get people to participate in contract tracing, there needs to be a level of trust.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

As COVID cases surged across the US last December, the CDC reckoned with a stark truth: Contact tracing couldn’t be scaled up to match the virus’ spread.

The practice of contact tracing – or identifying, assessing, and managing people who have been exposed to a disease – is an essential tool for controlling outbreaks by interrupting a disease’s transmission chains. And indeed, combined with lockdowns and mask ordinances, some countries have had great success using contact tracing to reduce outbreaks.

So why have attempts to institute it failed in so many other countries, most notably the US? And given that COVID is likely to be with us in some form for quite a while, are there ways to make contact tracing more effective here?

Sarit Markovich, a clinical professor of strategy at the Kellogg School, says that contact tracing, at its core, hinges on trust. This means that trust will need to be at the foundation of any successful efforts moving forward. This includes building trust in the technology, specifically in terms of false positives, trust that information will be kept private, and trust that people will not suffer consequences for self-reporting.

Here, she offers her thoughts on where contact tracing can fail, and how to do it better.

Consider your social makeup

Contact tracing requires individuals to share private information in service to the public good. In considering how to solicit this information, it helps to understand the difference between centralized and decentralized societies, Markovich said.

In countries with centralized governments, like China or Singapore, contact tracing is mandated and compliance is universal. Governments track people’s movement through a national phone app or wearable tokens, which people scan as they move between locations. Noncompliance is heavily fined. In general, these societies prioritize collective welfare over individual freedoms, like privacy.

“If the government makes you do it, you do it,” Markovich summarized. “And now in many of those places, people are back to their offices and normal life.”

But in democratic societies where government is decentralized, individual rights can be in tension with public health, Markovich said. Strategies that are effective in centralized societies are less likely to work in decentralized ones.

In Israel, for example, the government-mandated digital contact tracing and levied hefty fines for noncompliance. Given the country’s population size and relative homogeneity, it seemed as if national contact tracing would work much like it did in Singapore, Markovich said. But people objected to being tracked. They turned off or left their phones at home, and the initiatives have been unsuccessful.

“In decentralized societies, people do not completely trust the technology and do not completely trust authorities knowing where they are,” Markovich said. “They want privacy.”

Lower-tech approaches, where public health workers individually interview exposed individuals about their contacts, are unfortunately no more promising.

In Israel, for example, a volunteer-led startup tried to launch in-person contact tracing as an alternative to the government’s digital model. The initiative stalled when it turned out residents did not want to share personal information with strangers. That same skepticism exists in the US, where 41% of people in a recent Pew survey said that they wouldn’t speak to a public health official who contacted them by phone or text.

“The goal is to make people get used to contact tracing in a context that’s not scary and in a way where its effect on others is not negative but positive,” she said.

Keep it local

For now, Markovich believes that in decentralized societies, national contact tracing initiatives won’t work. A better option: hand the lead over to local governments and organizations.

At this smaller scale, Markovich says contact tracing becomes easier to centralize. Initiatives can be heavily encouraged or even mandated, and enforcement is also easier when it is tied to the social pressures of local communities or the requests of employers.

“Organizations and municipalities have an advantage because there’s more trust involved,” Markovich said. “They can centralize and mandate it, because if you want to be part of an organization – an employee at your company, for example – there are rules you will have to comply with.”

Over time, Markovich believes that the number of organizations and communities that mandate contact tracing will grow, especially as more local models – a church, a factory, or a city whose leaders have established trust – start to show success.

Reward disclosure without punishing exposure

She also advises that local communities and organizations think carefully about how to encourage people to disclose their contacts. This means, first and foremost, minimizing the negative consequences on all parties: those who have tested positive and are disclosing their contacts, as well as the individuals whom they have exposed.

Here, technology has a powerful role to play. Markovich observes that in some communities, COVID-positive people are blamed for spreading the virus. This practice of “COVID-shaming” could make them less likely to self-report their contacts.

“This is where technology helps,” Markovich said. “You want to use technology rather than rely on people to tell you who they’ve been in contact with or that they’re sick. It’s not about self-reporting. The technology tells you.”

But despite the benefits of technology that can automatically notify people of exposure (see sidebar), Markovich also notes that the human element shouldn’t be ignored. Follow up calls from trained professionals will provide an opportunity for people to ask questions about next steps, express concerns, and learn how to self-isolate, if required.

“The human part is important,” Markovich said. “Technology is great in terms of detection speed, but human contact creates trust.”

And whatever the technology used, if people do have to quarantine because they’ve been exposed to COVID, employers should assure their employees that they will be compensated for the time they self-isolate. Markovich cites incidents in which employees who have been exposed to the virus went to work because they lacked paid sick leave or feared losing their job. Since some sectors are at higher risk for infection, like grocery stores, the government should share these costs with organizations.

“We need incentives to encourage people to tell the truth and feel comfortable staying home,” Markovich said. “If you know that you’re going to be compensated even if you’re home, then you’re definitely going to feel more comfortable self-reporting and self-isolating.”

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4 lessons entrepreneurs can learn about problem-solving from the NASA engineers who landed Apollo 13

Apollo 13
Apollo 13 astronauts treading water as they await their recovery helicopter in 1970.

  • Entrepreneurs can grow their problem-solving skills by emulating the tactics used by the Apollo 13 NASA engineers.
  • Avoid panicking, and take a step back to assess and understand the situation or problem at hand.
  • Weigh each potential solution carefully, but once you’ve made a choice, commit and don’t second-guess your decision. 
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

Entrepreneurs are inherently problem-solvers. After all, we start our businesses because we recognize a need that needs to be filled. Take me, for instance: Part of my previous job at an internet media company was to create tools for editors to build forms, surveys, and polls. The problem was that at the time, the form-building landscape offered few good options. I decided to change that, and my company, JotForm, was born. 

But in the course of solving big-picture problems, smaller ones are constantly springing up and threatening to derail us. Some days, it feels like there are hundreds of fires that need to be put out before I’ve even finished my coffee. 

On those days, I like to think of an anecdote from Jerry C. Bostick, the flight dynamics officer for the Apollo 13 mission. More than two decades after the spacecraft was safely brought back to Earth after near-disaster, screenwriters Al Reinert and Bill Broyles were interviewing Bostick for the script that would become the film “Apollo 13.” One of their questions was, “Weren’t there times when everybody, or at least a few people, just panicked?”  

Bostick’s answer? No. 

“When bad things happened we just calmly laid out all the options, and failure was not one of them,” he said. 

If ever there was a situation when panic would be warranted, the Apollo 13 mission was one of them. But panic wouldn’t have helped Mission Control then, and it won’t help you, either. 

Work the problem

One of NASA‘s most renowned problem solvers was flight director Gene Kranz, who oversaw both the Gemini and Apollo programs during his 34-year career. While trying to figure out how to rescue the three astronauts whose lives were on the line on Apollo 13, he said to his staff, “Let’s work the problem, people. Let’s not make things worse by guessing.” 

Kranz’s “work the problem” mantra is still used by the agency today. Astronaut Chris Hadfield explained the process in his book, “An Astronaut’s Guide To Life On Earth,” describing it as “NASA-speak for descending one decision tree after another, methodically looking for a solution until you run out of oxygen:”

“When we heard the alarm on the Station, instead of rushing to don masks and arm ourselves with extinguishers, one astronaut calmly got on the intercom to warn that a fire alarm was going off – maybe the Russians couldn’t hear it in their module – while another went to the computer to see which smoke detector was going off. No one was moving in a leisurely fashion, but the response was one of focused curiosity; as though we were dealing with an abstract puzzle rather than an imminent threat to our survival. To an observer it might have looked a little bizarre, actually: no agitation, no barked commands, no haste.”

University of Virginia Professor Thomas S. Bateman laid out “working the problem” in eight steps:

  1. Define the problem
  2. Determine goals/objectives
  3. Generate an array of alternative solutions
  4. Evaluate the possible consequences of each solution
  5. Use this analysis to choose one or more courses of action
  6. Plan the implementation
  7. Implement with full commitment
  8. Adapt as needed based on incoming data

This calm, rational approach to problem-solving works for astronauts and entrepreneurs alike. No matter what you’re dealing with, take a step back, understand the problem, and descend each decision tree until you find a solution. 

Be adaptable 

It might turn out that your original vision isn’t the one that ends up being realized. Or maybe you successfully launched one product, but changing technology forces you to reimagine it a few years down the line. That’s okay. Successful entrepreneurs know that change is inevitable, and if they want to survive in the long term, they’ll have to adapt. 

Nokia, for example, began as a paper company before following consumer demand and transitioning to rubber tires and galoshes. In the 1960s, it began making military equipment for Finland’s army, including gas masks and radio service phones, among other things. It eventually rose to prominence as the most successful cell phone manufacturer on Earth between 1998 and 2012. Even though it was eventually crushed by Apple after the release of the iPhone, Nokia lasted as long as it did thanks to its agility. 

Ask “why?”

Asking “why?” over and over again might make you feel less like a CEO and more like your toddler. But the truth is that there’s a lot we can gain from having an open, inquisitive mindset. Entrepreneur Michelle MacDonald suggests asking “Why?” five times to get to the root of any problem. 

“Many times when a problem arises, we jump to the first thought about why that problem is occurring, and then focus on a solution to fix that,” she said. “This is like putting an adhesive bandage over a hose and expecting it to hold.”

Say you find yourself drowning in work because you keep putting off tasks. Your five whys might go something like this: 

  1. Why am I constantly stressed? Because I have too much to do and not enough time to do it. 
  2. Why don’t I have enough time? Because I often procrastinate. 
  3. Why do I procrastinate? Because I don’t particularly enjoy some of the tasks I have to do. 
  4. Why don’t I enjoy them? Because they’re not a good use of my time, and someone else can easily do them. 
  5. Why isn’t someone else doing them? Because I haven’t delegated them out. 

Doing this will help you treat the actual problem, not just its symptoms, and keep you from trying to resolve the same thing over and over again. 

Positive thinking

Bostick’s answer about Mission Control’s refusal to panic spawned one of the most iconic lines of all time: “Failure is not an option.” Though that exact phrasing is an invention of the “Apollo 13” writers, the sentiment was accurate.

Negative thinking undermines the brain’s ability to think broadly and creatively, because fear and stress obscure options. Of course, you’re going to be stressed if, say, you lose a major client or there’s a freak explosion aboard your space craft. But those who cultivate positivity tend to be more resilient to such shocks, said Barbara Fredrickson, a professor of psychology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and author of “Positivity.” 

One report co-written by Fredrickson suggests that positive emotions create a sort of buffer that helps people overcome setbacks. In fact, positive emotions were shown to help businesspeople negotiate better, improve decision-making and drive high-performance behavior. 

“Positive emotions expand awareness and attention,” Fredrickson said – critical attributes for anyone trying to solve a problem. “When you’re able to take in more information, the peripheral vision field is expanded. You’re able to connect the dots to the bigger picture. Instead of remembering just the most central event, you remember that and the peripheral aspects, too.”

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How employers can better support working moms with in-person and hybrid work options after the pandemic

working from home virtual learning
Moms may report more anxiety and loneliness while working from home.

  • Working moms face a particular disadvantage when it comes to balancing remote work with domestic duties.
  • A Yale University study suggests moms are more likely to feel depressed, anxious, and lonely while working from home.
  • When deciding on continuing remote work after the pandemic, employers should consider making accommodations for working moms.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

Many employers have found to their surprise that remote work offers productivity and savings. Why return to the office, and continue paying that pricey lease, when your employees are just as productive from home? I can already hear the groan of discontent from parents around the country – particularly mothers. Indeed, studies have found that mothers suffer a gender disadvantage in the remote work environment. They are more likely to work with their children present. Their household chores increase when they work from home. They are more likely to report depression, anxiety, and loneliness than their husbands.

Regardless of how attentive their husbands are to the gender imbalance in child-rearing, the fact is that mothers of young and school-aged children tend to be the primary caregiver. They have found it more difficult to manage their maternal and remote work responsibilities during the health crisis.

Employers who decide to continue the experiment with remote work after the global health crisis must avoid contributing to this gender disparity. My research and discussions with mothers reveal a singular finding about how to close the gender gap from remote work: Remote work should be an option, not a requirement.

A case for in-person work

Just as parents realized they relied on school as a form of daycare, mothers have come to realize that they rely on in-person work as a break from their domestic roles. A study by Yale University found that mothers suffered the most due to the clash between the domestic and career roles while working from home. Going to work creates a clear demarcation between these roles.

One friend, I’ll call her M., recently took mental leave because she found the demands of remote work and child-rearing too overwhelming. “I found myself scolding my kids simply because they wanted to spend time with me. They are still too young to realize that they were interrupting my work.” M. is fortunate enough to have the option of paid leave. Now she’s afraid that her firm might decide to require remote work post-health-crisis. “I cannot wait to go back to the office, and I’m not sure if I can stay at home if we go full remote.”

The allure of going remote for some businesses is obvious. Firms can save significantly on fixed overhead costs if they downsize or even eliminate their office space entirely. Indeed, many firms are considering going hybrid – placing some of their workforce in-person and the rest remaining at home. Employers are conducting occupational analyses to determine who will stay remote and who will return to work.

Pressures on mothers

Employers should also consider the gender factor. Some accommodations should be made for mothers (and anyone else, frankly) experiencing difficulties with remote work. They should have the option to return to work even if their positions have been deemed suitable for working remote.

It’s important to note that this problem will not just go away when children return to school after the health crisis. Mothers of young children will continue to care for their children at home. Many parents will decide, regardless of the distress, to save on the costs of childcare and aftercare if at least one parent is working from home.

This is not just a matter of accommodating subjective preferences. The research shows significant mental health problems for many mothers working remotely due to the health crisis. Remote work has altered the work-life balance for many mothers in ways they never envisioned, and employers considering a permanent or hybrid remote work approach must keep mothers in mind.

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How tech-based design solutions can help stop the spread of COVID-19, according to an architect

elevator button coronavirus
In some quarantine hotels, staff help guests by pressing the elevator buttons.

  • Mengbi Li is a lecturer in built environment architecture at Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia. 
  • She says the design or redesign of existing infrastructure can help people overcome COVID health challenges.
  • One redesign option is to make high-touch public spaces, like elevator buttons and toilets, motion-sensitive and touch-free.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

The coronavirus has been escaping with distressing frequency from quarantine hotels, threatening serious outbreaks. To make things worse, multiple variants of the virus, possibly more infectious and deadly, have recently been detected. This accentuates the need for robust hotel quarantine, especially in countries like Australia that have controlled community transmission.

While the hotel quarantine system has received wide attention, relatively few people have had the opportunity to experience and observe it first hand. Even fewer have been able to compare with other regions handling similar challenges. I happen to have needed to travel overseas and thus experienced quarantine in several places over the past months.

Based on my experience as an academic in architecture, I share some thoughts and observations here on how the design or redesign of buildings, infrastructure, and cities can help people overcome the health challenges created by COVID-19.

Our buildings and cities were not designed to handle such extraordinary situations as this pandemic. One consequence is their design has often made the need to touch surfaces unavoidable.

Take elevators, for example

Some of the most frequently touched surfaces in buildings are the buttons in lifts. In some buildings in China, plastic wrap is used to cover the buttons and a sticker showing the time and date of last disinfection is attached nearby. Other buildings provide tissues for people to use as disposable finger covers.

In quarantine hotels, this procedure is even more carefully managed. Staff help guests by pressing the button. This small touch area needs frequent cleaning, which calls for extra human resources.

At Baiyunshan airport in Guangzhou, I used an elevator with touch-free buttons. The keypad had infrared sensors installed next to the usual button. With just a wave of their finger over the touch-free button, users can select their destination.

Another mode free of physical screens features numbers displayed in a front-projected holographic display. A sensor detects the movement of pressing a button in the air to activate the lift.

This technology is not out of our reach. In response to the pandemic, authorities in Melbourne and Sydney have trialed touch-free buttons using infrared technology at pedestrian crossings.

One concern about touch-free buttons is the challenge they present to the visually impaired. Currently, a push-button is placed next to the infrared sensor. An alternative for people who need assistance would be to use gesture or voice commands. Other concerns include reliability and vandal-proofing.

Another sensitive touch spot is the toilet. The airport toilets I visited in Australia, China, and Singapore are equipped with touch-free features to activate the flush, tap, soap dispenser, and hand dryer. However, the doors and locks cannot function without touch. Touch-free sensors or foot pedals would probably help.

Alternatively, new materials or coatings like antimicrobial polymers could be applied in areas where touch is unavoidable. Of course, care must be taken to ensure the antiviral potency is both reliable and people-friendly.

Design solutions don’t have to be high-tech

Interestingly, touch-free public spaces do not always rely on advanced materials or sophisticated technology. In a Melbourne quarantine hotel, I noticed several bollards with foot pedals being used as hand sanitizer dispensers. These are designed to function mechanically and require no power connections.

Instead of a simple stainless steel bollard, this dispenser could be further reimagined as an artistic sculpture integrating the building’s signage at the entrance. Elsewhere, this design could be incorporated into litter bins along the streets.

Usually, for architectural design, circulation patterns are analysed to see how people reach each space and establish the relationships between different areas. For safety purposes, exits are checked to ensure people can evacuate in a timely way. To prepare for future pandemics, these studies could add analysis of touch points in both pandemic and non-pandemic periods.

The shared challenge posed by the pandemic has prompted some innovative ideas. For example, physical reminders to keep a social distance have variously involved using carpet tiles, mowed or trimmed landscape patterns, furniture arrangements, temporary structures, and pavements or stickers.

Other solutions involve applying modular construction from well-equipped containers to create emergency hospitals or mobile testing stations.

From touch-free public spaces to designing for social distance and modular construction, there are still many ways the design or redesign of our buildings and cities can help to protect the public. Good design is particularly important to protect those in high-risk environments, such as workers and senior citizens in health care and aged care.

As necessity is the mother of invention, there is nothing like a period of stress to stimulate creativity, industry, and innovation.

The Conversation
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How to choose between an in-person, hybrid, and remote work model for your business post-pandemic

Remote work
Companies can decide to have employees work entirely remotely or predominantly in person.

  • The pandemic has forced organizations to rethink the office work structure.
  • Post-pandemic, many leaders will have to decide what’s the best work model for their businesses — in-person, remote or hybrid.
  • The future of work requires careful planning for both business leaders and their employees.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

After about a year of working remotely and making changes due to the pandemic, many leaders are confronting the same crucial question: What does the future of work look like in my organization?

As a leader, you must decide what workplace model you want to use, considering the needs of your business and your employees. Generally, organizations will have three options: entirely remote, predominantly in person, or a hybrid of the two.

Before you decide, it’s important to know the merits and drawbacks of each model. Here’s a quick rundown:

Predominantly in person

Before the pandemic, many organizations had nearly all employees in an office most days, and some feel an inclination to return to this workplace model. Some organizations have struggled to create a fully collaborative environment while working remotely, and Netflix CEO Reid Hastings spoke for many detractors when he called remote work “a pure negative.”
 
Companies that have encountered remote work challenges may want to go back to simpler, pre-pandemic times. If you’ve led a highly successful in-person organization, it’s natural to want to regain that degree of organizational success, collaboration, and camaraderie.
 
But companies must know that while many employees cannot wait to return to the office, others have decided they prefer remote work and have even moved far away from their former office. Freelancing and hiring company Upwork found that 23 million Americans plan to relocate in response to increased remote work opportunities. These employees may decide to pursue a new job if coming back to the office is mandatory.

Before returning to a purely in-person model, get a sense of what people want by either having managers collect intel or distributing an anonymous survey. If your employees predominantly want to continue working remotely, it may be worthwhile to listen.

Fully remote

While some companies have struggled remotely, many prior skeptics have embraced remote work in the pandemic. Companies as large as Twitter have even told employees they can work from home forever.

The benefits of a fully remote model are apparent – being completely virtual allows companies to save on office space and in-office technology, such as remote friendly conference rooms and office servers. In addition, remote work can give employees the flexibility they didn’t know they craved, allowing them to set a better schedule for themselves, be more productive without the distractions of an office, and be more present outside work.

However, companies shouldn’t be replicating all their in-person workflows, meeting routines, and management approaches in a newly virtual organization. Instead, the best remote companies help their employees engage and collaborate while working from home, share strategies to help their people manage a remote workday, and invest in employee necessities by offering laptops, office supply reimbursements, or high-speed wireless subsidization.
 
That said, be aware of and think of ways to accommodate the people who were looking forward to coming back to the office and won’t be excited to find out there isn’t one.

Hybrid

It’s crucial to know that creating a hybrid work environment requires a careful strategy in and of itself; it’s not a way to avoid setting a clear course. Leaders of hybrid organizations must create an environment where employees are consistently available and every team member is engaged professionally, even if they rarely come to the office.

Hybrid organizations have one clear advantage: They give every employee an opportunity to work however they want, whether that means coming to an office consistently, working from home every day, or something in the middle. Hybrid organizations also have the benefit of a ready-made office space for in-person meetings, training, team building, and more.

However, hybrid organizations need to ensure everyone is integrated into their work environment, regardless of where or how they work. There must be clear expectations and norms about when employees can work remotely and when they should be in the office. Leaders must plan in-person meetings and collaboration carefully, rather than abruptly calling employees into the office for conferencing. Most crucially, they must ensure that employees who work from home frequently are not passed over for advancement and recognition, and don’t fall into social isolation.

Companies should weigh these three workplace models carefully, and not thoughtlessly gravitate to the style that is closest to what they’ve always done. You should also be ready for a healthy percentage of your workforce to opt out of the model that you choose, as many folks are discovering new preferences for how they’d like to work.

Don’t try to be everything to everyone. Choose your strategy, support it, and be honest with the people in your organization about where you are heading – knowing many of them might choose to head in a different direction after their own experience over the past year.

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The 8 best places to take classes online – whether you’re looking for free hobby classes or flexible degree programs

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  • Learning new skills online is often far more convenient and inexpensive than pursuing a traditional degree program.
  • Online learners tend to appreciate the flexibility, affordability, and range of options provided by e-learning.
  • Below are overviews of 8 of the most popular affordable online learning options, including edX, Coursera, FutureLearn, LinkedIn Learning, Skillshare, Udemy, CreativeLive, and MasterClass.

There’s a reason people are turning to online learning en masse. Students can learn at their own pace; save money on commuting, boarding, and a host of other expenses; and dabble in bite-sized courses before committing to a longer program.

Some e-learning platforms are free, while others let you take as many courses as you want for a small payment or monthly fee. With online learning, you can pick up professional certifications, gain skills that help you get hired in a quickly changing market, and even work towards master’s degrees.

Whether you want to advance your career or to pick up new hobbies during quarantine, online courses are one of the best perks of the 21st century, and one way the internet is democratizing information – even in the form of free Ivy League courses. All you need is internet access. 

8 of the most popular affordable online learning platforms:

Best free or affordable university courses and certificate programs

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edX

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Founded by Harvard University and MIT, edX hosts classes from some of the world’s leading universities, nonprofits, and institutions, and is currently the only leading MOOC provider that is both a nonprofit and open-source platform. 

edX has more than 100 institutional partners, including Berkeley, MIT, and Harvard, and offers courses in everything from the arts to architecture, economics, law, and more. You can also enroll in MicroMasters, master’s programs, or earn professional certificates.

How to get started: Sign up with an email address. Except for professional education courses, edX is free to enroll and audit. If you want a verified certificate, there is a fee (usually between $50-$300, depending on the course). 

Popular classes to consider:

Browse edX classes here.

Coursera

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Coursera has thousands of classes taught by top instructors from some of the world’s best universities and educational institutions, including Yale, Columbia, UPenn, Stanford, Johns Hopkins, and Duke. You can even earn degrees and certifications through the site.

Topics range from public health to personal development.

Each course is like an interactive textbook with pre-recorded videos, quizzes, and projects. You can connect with thousands of other students to debate ideas, discuss course material, or get help in mastering the concepts. And, for a fee, you can also earn certificates for your work, and share your achievements with friends, colleagues, and employers.

How to get started: Sign up with an email address. On average, individual courses range from $29-$99 each for certification, though there are plenty of free courses you can audit. 

Popular classes to consider:

Browse Coursera classes here.

FutureLearn

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FutureLearn, like edX and Coursera, offers thousands of free university courses and paid certificate programs from top schools, nonprofits, and brands. One way it differs from the other platforms is that it’s based in England, therefore having more offerings from UK schools and companies as well as a range of international institutions.

FutureLearn offers short courses, Microcredential programs, ExpertTracks, and online degrees.

How to get started: Sign up with an email address. You can audit many courses for free (usually for up to five weeks), pay for individual programs, or sign up for FutureLearn’s Unlimited subscription plan, which provides limitless access to hundreds of courses for $189.99 per year.

Popular courses to consider:

Browse all FutureLearn courses here.

Best subscription plans

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MasterClass

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MasterClass offers online classes created for students of any skill level, taught by world-renowned instructors in each field, like Gordon Ramsay, Margaret Atwood, and Serena Williams, among others.

MasterClass has more than 75 courses, each broken up into bite-sized, high-quality videos. Each class was created by the instructor and typically includes pre-recorded content, a PDF of a class workbook, interactive assignments, and community activities. Periodically, MasterClass even has opportunities for students to submit work to certain instructors for feedback.

How to get started: If there are multiple classes you’d like to take, sign up for an All-Access Pass ($180 per year or $15 per month) to access unlimited course lessons for as long as your subscription is active.

Popular classes to consider:

Browse MasterClass classes here.

LinkedIn Learning

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LinkedIn Learning is a subscription-based online learning platform that lets you take over 16,000 career development courses, from coding classes to public speaking tutorials. One benefit of this platform is that it offers courses around what companies are looking for based on LinkedIn’s hiring data.

Courses are usually made up of short videos, quizzes, and occasional assignments. LinkedIn Learning members will also receive certificates of completion to add to their LinkedIn profiles at no extra charge.

How to get started: You can sign up for a free month with your LinkedIn profile. After the trial ends, the subscription costs $29.99 per month or $19.99 per month for the annual plan.

Popular courses to consider:

Browse all LinkedIn Learning courses here.

Skillshare

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Skillshare offers more than 25,000 classes taught by creators, entrepreneurs, and professionals from around the world. Course topics span various categories such as design, illustration, business, technology, photo and film, entrepreneurship, and writing. 

Each class has short video lessons and a hands-on project for you to work on, which can be shared in class for feedback and collaboration from the community. Skillshare will also recommend classes and “lists” — essentially a curated curriculum for a topic like graphic design or branding — based on your interests.

How to get started: Get a free 14-day trial account with just an email address. You’ll have access to free classes on both web and mobile. For full access to all classes and offline viewing, a premium membership is billed $32 per month or $13.99 per month for the annual plan ($167.88 total)

With the membership, you can enroll in multiple classes at no extra charge.

Popular classes to consider:

Browse Skillshare classes here.

Best individual classes

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Udemy

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Udemy has probably the largest selection of online courses, with more than 100,000 video courses and new additions published every month. With frequent sales (and sale prices as low as $10.99 per course), it’s often one of the most affordable options as well.

Currently, there are more than 30 million students using the service and courses are available in more than 50 languages. 

Topics range from programming bootcamps to in-depth art lessons.

How to get started: Sign up with an email address to browse courses. With an account, you can buy or gift individual courses, or enroll in one of the free courses offered through Udemy.

Popular classes to consider:

Browse Udemy classes here.

CreativeLive

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CreativeLive is a learning platform designed specifically for creators, with more than 1,500 classes taught by over 650 industry-leading experts. Each class falls under one of five categories: photo and video; art and design; music and audio, craft and maker; or money and life. Ultimately, the classes are centered around making creativity a habit, be it for personal or professional use.

How to get started: Sign up with an email address. Classes are as low as $20, and you can buy and own them forever — just in case you need a refresher one day.

Popular classes to consider:

Browse CreativeLive classes here.

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4 practices to help you separate work from home while working remotely, according to a psychotherapist

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Having an established work area can help you leave work behind at the end of the day.

Working from home blurs the line between “work time” and “free time.” On the plus side, you can throw some laundry in during the middle of a busy work day. On the flipside, you might struggle to watch TV at night without feeling a twinge of guilt that you don’t at least have your laptop in front of you.

The pandemic has definitely made the division between work and home even more complicated. For many families, home has become the gym, the office, and school. 

And while you don’t need to have a clear delineation between home and work all the time, a little separation between the two can help you feel more present when you’re working and allow you to fully enjoy your leisure time.

1. Establish a work area

Most people don’t have the luxury of having a dedicated home office. If you do, commit to working while you’re in the office and when you’re done, exit the room and leave work behind. 

If you don’t have a separate office, create a work area. This doesn’t have to be the place you physically work from all day (like the dining room table or the couch). Instead, it might be the place where you store your work-related items when you aren’t working.

If you can, put the laptop, piles of papers, and other work-related materials completely out of sight when you’re not working. Tuck them in a drawer or put them in a closet. 

Just tucking those items away can grant you some psychological relief during your off-time by signaling to your brain that you have permission to relax.

2. Change your clothes

While some people say they feel better wearing nice clothes while working from home, dressing up isn’t mandatory.

After all, when you’re at home, you might find wearing nice clothes adds more stress to your day because you have to worry about getting dog hair on your shirt and spilling your soup on your lap.

If you’re into more casual wear in the confines of your home, you can still use your attire to your psychological advantage. Simply change your clothes when you’re done working – even if that means replacing your green joggers with the black ones. 

There’s something about putting on different clothes that can help your brain see that it’s time for something new – even if it’s a lateral switch in outfits (as opposed to the downgrade from the business suit to the sweatpants).

You might even find you dress up more in your off time. If you’ve been trying to pass off your pajamas as business casual on a blurry Zoom call, you might find a trip the grocery store actually warrants a wardrobe upgrade.  Either way, a change of clothes can go a long way to helping you create a distinction between “work time” and “free time.”

3. Create a fake commute

Under normal circumstances, commutes are often the one thing that helps people prepare for the transition between work and home. Whether that commute involves listening to a podcast on a train or it’s a daily call to mom while driving on a country road, physical distance can help us create some psychological distance too.

So you might find it’s helpful to create a fake commute for yourself. Even if it’s just a walk around the block before you start working, a daily activity like this can signal your brain that you’re going from “home” to “work.”

I know one man who walks out his back door as if he’s going to work and then just re-enters through the front. He swears this helps him feel like he’s “going to work” again. So while his “commute” only lasts a minute or two, he finds the strategy helps him feel more effective.

4. Use a different page for work/home apps

If you have a lot of apps for work – like your work email or Slack channel – put them on a different screen on your smartphone. 

Separating your “fun” apps from your “work” apps can help you resist the temptation to check your work email at all hours of the day.

This can also help you enjoy your fun apps a little more. And signal to your brain that you have permission to have fun right now. 

Distinguishing work time from free time can go a long way toward helping you feel your best when you’re working from home. This can be key to preventing burnout and helping you perform at your best.

Read the original article on Business Insider

3 Black queer journalists share their advice for breaking into the journalism industry and what publications should do better to recruit minority employees

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(L-R) Tre’vell Anderson, Cerise Castle, Femi Redwood.

  • Regardless of any sudden DEI efforts made in 2020, journalist Daric L. Cottingham says the media industry has a long way to go to promote diversity. 
  • Cottingham interviewed three Black LGBTQ journalists on lessons they’ve learned breaking into the media industry.
  • The group also shared their thoughts on how publications can better recruit and retain Black queer journalists.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

As the spike of police brutality targeted at Black people became a constant headline in 2020, the world began to listen to concerns of structural racism and bias, especially in professional settings. 

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Daric L. Cottingham.

Many industries started to examine their racist pasts. Journalism in particular began to reckon with the lack of diversity in newsrooms, and the racist rhetoric it used in coverage of diverse communities.

These “reckonings” felt like an empty PR attempt, since the same behaviors are still present at many publications in 2021 

Despite these “attempts,” we’re left with a lingering question of how can journalism actively change to be as diverse as the communities it reports on. One way is to hire diverse candidates with intersecting identities, such as Black queer journalists who navigate the industry with the added stress of implicit bias rooted in racism and queerphobia.  

I spoke with three Black queer journalists about the lessons they’ve learned navigating the journalism job market.

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Cerise Castle.

Cerise Castle (she/her) is a Black lesbian multimedia journalist who’s produced and hosted segments for VICE News Tonight, Los Angeles NPR affiliate KCRW, and Wondery. 

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Tre’vell Anderson.

Tre’vell Anderson (they/them) is a Black queer, non-binary person of trans experience, the president of the National Association of Black Journalists of Los Angeles, co-chair of NABJ’s LGBTQ Task Force, and editor-at-large at Xtra Magazine.

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Femi Redwood.

Femi Redwood (she/her) is a Black lesbian TV news anchor who most recently reported for VICE News on intersectional issues including race, gender, and LGBTQ identities. She’s a board member of NLGJA: The Association of LGBTQ Journalists and a co-chair NABJ’s LGBTQ Task Force.

Here’s what they had to say, including advice they have for young Black queer journalists trying to break into the industry and advice for publications to better recruit and retain these diverse journalists. 

What was one lesson you learned as a Black, queer journalist? 

Cerise Castle: The hardest lesson I think is the fastest one you learn: that your voice and ideas will probably always be counted last. I think that’s a valuable lesson because I think it’s helpful to go in knowing the reality of most newsrooms and how most outlets work. Unfortunately, I think it’s a reality that you have to accept most of the time.

Tre’vell Anderson: A lesson that I’ve learned as a Black, queer journalist is that, just because my editor doesn’t understand the importance of a particular story, doesn’t mean that story shouldn’t be told. As Black, queer, trans folks, as folks from a marginalized, less represented community in newsrooms, often the stories that we want to tell about our communities don’t hold that same weight. Or don’t seem as necessary or worthy to our editors, who are white folk more often than not.

Femi Redwood: Pay attention to the media group because it may have more control in how the station or the publication handles things than the individual entity you will work for. If it’s a problematic station group, you don’t want to work there.

What advice do you have for young Black, queer journalists trying to break into the industry?

Castle: I would say not to change yourself for the industry. I had a college professor who told me that to be on camera, I had to have shoulder-length hair and couldn’t wear it naturally. I couldn’t have piercings or do my makeup a certain way. And all of that, just … It isn’t true. 

Granted, there will be some news directors that will force you into that box, but you can always be yourself. The first on-camera job that I got picked me because they liked my curly hair and liked that I bleached it. They liked that I had facial piercings. They liked that I didn’t look just like every other reporter from central casting. Playing into your identity can help you out in many situations, to get that job, and to get the story too.

Anderson: My advice to Black queer journalists, emerging and coming into the industry and those that are fairly established, is to remain undaunted as we navigate these spaces. Follow your heart, follow your gut, follow your intense desire to tell your community’s stories, even when the broader media ecosystem, or your editor, or whomever tells you that those stories don’t have any worth. 

It’s important to build an identity outside of the news organizations that we might work for and beyond the work we do because being a journalist is a thankless job in many ways. Still, it’s a very necessary job at the same time.

Redwood: My one piece of advice to queer Black journalists is to go into every situation as if you were a straight white man. It’s been my recent guiding principle. 

Often we are told we need to accept anything, accept any pay, and accept any position. We are told that unless we check off certain boxes – years of experience, education, awards, etc. – we don’t deserve more. Nah. 

Be like straight white men. They are socialized to expect what they believe they deserve. Young queer Black journos need to do that as well. We often see straight white men “fail up” while we tell ourselves, ‘we aren’t ready for a new position, we don’t deserve a raise, or haven’t earned a promotion.’ 

You deserve that job even if you only worked on your college paper; you deserve that pay even if you didn’t go to what’s considered a top j-school, you deserve that promotion even if you haven’t earned any awards, because why not you.

What can publications do to better recruit and retain Black, queer journalists?

Castle: Pay them. That’s all, that’s my answer. Pay them what they’re worth, more than they’re worth.

Anderson: What these people need to do to recruit more Black queer journalists is the same thing they need to do to recruit more Black journalists, right? They have to get out of their own way and get out of our way. 

Many folks hiring and recruiting reporters aren’t doing intentional outreach to groups of color, to 1) Let us know the available opportunities, and 2) Give us the same kind of level playing field that our white counterparts have. 

It also requires you to not only augment and change your recruiting habits, but you also need to change your retention practices because once you hire a Black person, you need to make sure that the work environment is one they will want to stay at your company. 

That might mean that some people on the team need to leave because they’re toxic, or they’re white supremacists, or they’re racist, or they’re homophobic, or transphobic.

Redwood: It’s all a big circle. And all of these things work hand in hand. To recruit Black queer journalists, you have to create a place they want to work. Because if the environment is homophobic or full of racist microaggressions, then Black folks aren’t going to want to work there. 

The next thing is to create paid internships. Expecting journalists to work for free, it’s a form of gatekeeping that unfortunately prevents many Black and brown and queer journalists from getting in. Because statistically speaking, we don’t have the same wealth as white counterparts.

Read the original article on Business Insider

4 ways to increase your level of influence in the workplace

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Leading by example is the best way to influence others at work.

  • There are several ways you can grow your influence as a leader at work, says career coach Melody Wilding.
  • Expressing trust and understanding is key to inspire passion in your employees and team members.
  • By earning loyalty and leading by example, you can steadily increase your level of influence at work.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

Influence – especially in the workplace – is about setting an example that inspires others to do as you do. The keyword here is, inspire. Influencing others isn’t about pressuring people to submit to your requests. Nor is it about manipulation. 

Influence, at its core, is akin to persuasion in the most genuine form. It involves inspiring others by how you show up and how you make them feel by leading them.

So, how does a leader influence a team to work towards a vision, share their passion, and to get things done? 

If you’re a sensitive high-achiever (or what I call a Sensitive Striver), then you already have the tools that other less-sensitive leaders may not. Your team will understand that you care about their values as much as your own, because of your ability to read them and to feel how they are feeling.

Your strength in empathy gives you a boost because you know what matters to your team. This creates a space of connection, understanding, and trust. With that as your foundation, your success in influencing as a leader will shine.

Leadership by influence: 4 essential aspects to increasing your influence in the workplace

Once you have a solid base of trust and connection with your team, you can strengthen your ability to influence and further your success as a leader. Here are a few key skills to increase your level of influence:

1. Be transparent

To increase your influence in the workplace, you must remain open and honest. It’s important to allow others to voice their questions and concerns and to answer them with transparency. Being honest is easy when there is good news to share, yet remaining 100% honest when the news is bad can be difficult.

The best leaders are transparent in all instances. If a question is posed that you are not prepared to answer, say, “I want to be sure to have all of the correct information before I answer that. Let me check the facts and get back to you by the end of the day.” Be sure to follow-up as soon as you can address their question. Answer with positivity and openness, and you will achieve a team committed to you and your goals.

As a Sensitive Striver, if problems do arise, your ability to communicate with empathy will be a guiding light for the rest of the team.

2. Inspire loyalty

Inspiring a sense of commitment from your team is vital to successful leadership and influence. This can be accomplished by motivating and improving the working lives of your employees.  Look for and speak to their accomplishments. Understand that your success also lies in the quality of people that you help advance within the company.

If someone in your group is going above and beyond in their role, acknowledge them. The pride you take in your team’s successes not only motivates your team but inspires deep loyalty to you as their leader, which is the best use of your influence in the workplace.  

3. Lead by example

Sensitive Strivers don’t fall short on determination. Lead by example by staying confident and focused on the end goal. A leader crippled by self-doubt or deterred by setbacks sets an uneasy tone and can contribute to chaos among the team. When a problem emerges (which you have most likely played out in your head), keep a steadfast and positive attitude. This is important, though difficult, especially if your reputation is on the line.

If you see yourself struggling to maintain or regain positivity, take a moment to remind yourself that you can change your mindset. Your attitude is your choice, and your team will mirror that behavior. Turning obstacles into unprecedented opportunities generates a collective calm that is nothing short of inspiring.

4. Beware the perfectionism pitfall

Sensitive Strivers tend to be perfectionists. Your impeccable attention to detail and ambition to keep going until it’s “flawless” contribute to your success. Yet, at other times, your need to do things “right” can fuel anxiety. As Brené Brown says, “Perfectionism is self-destructive simply because there’s no such thing as perfect. Perfection is an unattainable goal.”

Carrying your expectation of perfection over to the team you are trying to lead will decrease your influence in the workplace and chip away at the group’s morale. To avoid fallout, stay focused on what is working, and what you can control. More likely than not, the end goal is still intact.

The ability to influence others is one of the most essential qualities a leader can have. Taking the time to learn the steps of influencing others intelligently and ethically, will improve your success as a leader, and that of the company’s.

Sensitive Strivers, you have a leg up in the world of influencing people. Your high emotional intelligence, your passion, and your drive will set you apart. You will be a leader who brings people together with a common goal and will inspire your team to get things done and done well.

Read the original article on Business Insider