Republicans want to prevent future Olympians like Laurel Hubbard – so they’re banning trans kids from school sports

The Olympic rings logo with the Transgender and Intersex flag colors on top of the first openly trans woman to compete in the Olympics, Laurel Hubbard, and Olympian and middle-distance runner Caster Semenya on a black background.
Hormone restrictions have created barriers to trans and intersex athletes like Olympic weightlifter Laurel Hubbard (left) and gold medalist Caster Semenya (right).

All Becky Pepper-Jackson ever wanted to do in middle school was to run alongside her classmates on the girls’ cross-country team. Coming from a family of runners, Becky literally grew up with her feet in running shoes. After COVID-19 restrictions were lifted in her home state of West Virginia and her school reopened, she was ecstatic to try out for the team.

But if Republicans have their way, Becky will be barred from fulfilling her dream. In February, GOP lawmakers in West Virginia passed a bill that would bar Becky and other transgender children from participating in any school sports. Legislators argue that innate hormonal differences – particularly, higher natural levels of testosterone – give trans girls an inherent physical advantage over cisgender girls. This year, lawmakers in 28 states are voting on more than 100 anti-trans bills, many of which aim to bar trans kids from school sports.

It’s deeply ironic that Republicans who have rejected the science around everything from climate change to COVID-19 vaccines are attempting to use medical “evidence” to gin up a new culture war. But when it comes to sports, the GOP is relying on science that simply doesn’t exist. There are no studies that indicate that trans women’s levels of testosterone – which vary widely – afford them an advantage over their cis competitors. What’s more, many cis women have testosterone levels higher than what many consider to be the “female” average, meaning that wide hormonal variations are already an intrinsic element of women’s sports.

Indeed, far from dominating sports, trans athletes remain woefully underrepresented in elite competitions. Of the 10,000 athletes in Tokyo for this year’s Olympics, only three are trans – even though trans people make up approximately 1% of the world’s population. When the New Zealand powerlifter Laurel Hubbard qualified for the games earlier this year, she became the first openly trans woman to earn the right to compete in the Olympics.

“The question shouldn’t be ‘Why are there three trans athletes in Tokyo?’,” Joanna Harper, a medical physicist who has authored two studies on trans women in sports, told me. “The question should be ‘Why aren’t there a hundred?'”

The magical strength hormone

In the debate over trans athletes, testosterone is typically framed as the masculine sex hormone. The more testosterone someone is perceived to have, the stronger they’re assumed to be. Often, the GOP ties this assertion to the age-old belief that men are stronger than women.

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Science now understands that people of all sexes, not just cis men, have varying amounts of testosterone.

In fact, the study of sex hormones – including this assumption about testosterone – is relatively new. One of the first mentions of testosterone as a masculine hormone dates to 1889, when the physiologist Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard claimed he had created a strength elixir using “juice extracted from a testicle.” It wasn’t until 1931 that testosterone was synthesized, making it available for scientific study. But by then, the idea that testosterone was a male sex hormone tied to vitality and strength had taken hold. In the popular imagination, there appeared to be a modern, scientific basis for the centuries-old assumption that women were the weaker sex.

There’s one problem with this belief, according to Katrina Karkazis, a cultural anthropologist at the University of Amherst and co-author of “Testosterone: An Unauthorized Biography.” “The root belief that testosterone is the miracle molecule of athleticism,” Karkazis told me, “isn’t supported by the science.”

The idea that testosterone, or “T,” is the main determinant of strength in a person stems from a time when scientists believed that estrogen was produced by only women and testosterone was produced by only men. Scientists have since found that people of all sexes have varying amounts of testosterone and estrogen. And frequently their amounts fall outside the bounds of what is considered “male” or “female.”

Intersex people – an umbrella term for those born with bodies that don’t fit neatly into traditional sex designations – are as common as people with red hair. In addition, certain medical conditions can alter a person’s hormone levels throughout their life. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, up to 12% of cisgender women in the US have polycystic ovarian syndrome, which can produce testosterone levels higher than the “female” average.

The GOP’s argument against trans athletes is founded almost entirely on false beliefs about testosterone. In the Republican worldview, trans women are trying to “trick” the general public about their gender in order to have an advantage in women’s sports. If a trans woman athlete happens to have a naturally high level of testosterone, the thinking goes, she is essentially no different from Lance Armstrong or Barry Bonds, who both took performance enhancing drugs to gain an unfair advantage over their opponents.

“What we see is they base their information on myths, misconceptions, and stereotypes about the trans community,” said Chris Mosier, an advocate and the first out trans member of Team USA. “They’re largely comparing trans women to cisgender men.”

The testosterone rule

The first time athletes were tested for testosterone was at the Pan American Games in 1983. Officials were looking for teams that were doping with unnatural levels of testosterone or anabolic steroids to improve their chances of winning. But in 2003, as part of its effort to verify the sex of athletes, the International Olympics Committee began imposing explicit restrictions on trans athletes, requiring anyone attempting to qualify outside of the sex they were assigned at birth to go through bottom surgery and hormone-replacement therapy.

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Caster Semenya celebrates after winning the women’s 800 meters in Doha, Qatar in 2019.

In 2011, when controversy arose over Caster Semenya, the South Africa runner who is intersex and has elevated levels of natural testosterone, international sports organizations began subjecting athletes, particularly intersex women, to testosterone testing. If they had too much of the magical “strength elixir,” they would not be eligible to compete as women. What had begun as a means of identifying cheaters had morphed into a tool for excluding trans and intersex athletes.

After Mosier pushed back against the regulations during his bid to qualify for the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, the IOC eliminated the requirement for bottom surgery. But it kept the hormone requirement for trans women, requiring them to be on estrogen and on testosterone blockers for two years in order to compete. World Athletics, the international governing body for track and field, passed similar regulations in 2018 that require intersex women, who often have naturally higher levels of T, to lower their natural testosterone levels to compete.

At this year’s Olympics, the regulations were used to bar several world-class athletes from competing. Semenya, a two-time gold medalist who exceeded the allowable limit for T, spoke out against the decision, saying that the medication required to suppress her testosterone level had made her “constantly sick.”

The rules contain a clear bias against trans women. Mosier, a who takes testosterone-based hormone replacement therapy, told me that he wasn’t scrutinized in the same way that trans and intersex women are. “My experience largely was very easy,” he said. “I think it was certainly because I was someone assigned female at birth competing with men. People didn’t think I’d be competitive, so I was not seen as a threat.”

The rules, and the anti-trans legislation being pushed by Republicans, aren’t backed up by the science. The only two large-scale studies that measured testosterone in elite athletes actually undercut the idea that T is a reliable measure of gender differences. One showed a large overlap in testosterone levels between men and women: 16.5% of men exhibited “female” levels, and 13.7% of women had “male” levels. “The IOC definition of a woman as one who has a normal testosterone level,” the researchers concluded, “is untenable.” The other study excluded women with naturally higher levels of testosterone because of medical conditions, skewing the results.

Laurel Hubbard is the first transgender athlete ever to be selected for the Olympic Games
Laurel Hubbard of New Zealand, who competed in men’s weightlifting competitions before transitioning in 2013, is the first openly trans athlete to qualify for the Olympics.

Almost all the research on testosterone, in fact, is based not on trans women but on cis men. “We don’t really have data that supports any sort of findings about transgender athletes,” Mosier said. Karkazis, the cultural anthropologist, told me there’s yet to be a conclusive study of athletes that includes a statistically significant sample of trans women to analyze whether they have an advantage in sports.

Harper, the medical physicist and a trans runner herself, is one of the few researchers who have studied trans women in sports. The idea that trans athletes have an insurmountable advantage, she told me, is statistically false. “The real question is ‘Can trans women and cis women compete against one another in meaningful sport?’ These population studies are pretty good evidence that, yes, we can have meaningful sport between trans women and cis women.”

The harm caused by discrimination

The attempts to regulate trans women in sports strike at the heart of society’s deep-seated assumptions about gender. After all, the reason we separate cis men and women in athletic competitions is because men are held to be physically superior. In the name of making sports fair and entertaining, we practice an overt form of gender segregation, enshrined in law and upheld by “sex tests” at the highest levels of professional sports.

But even if higher levels of testosterone provide some level of competitive advantage, that wouldn’t justify the exclusion of trans women from elite sports. We already permit plenty of “natural” advantages in athletic competition: think left-handed pitchers in baseball, or 7-foot centers in basketball. The real risk isn’t that cis men will pose as trans women and undergo hormone therapy to trounce cis women on the field of play. The real risk is that our misplaced fixation on testosterone will cause serious harm to the trans women and girls being excluded from sports.

Becky Pepper-Jackson
Becky Pepper-Jackson, 11, sued the state of West Virginia from trying to block her and other trans kids from playing sports at school.

Dr. Deanna Adkins, a pediatric endocrinologist and professor at Duke University, told me there is simply no basis for barring trans youth from school sports. Regardless of what sex someone is assigned at birth, there are minimal hormonal differences among children before puberty. And even after children start to produce estrogen and testosterone, there’s no conclusive evidence that either hormone offers a physical advantage.

“Everybody deserves to be able to participate in sports,” Adkins said. “School sports are not there to make Olympic athletes. School sports are there so that we all learn to love, to exercise, and are healthier adults.”

On July 21, a federal court agreed. Judge Joseph Goodwin issued an injunction preventing West Virginia from barring trans athletes from school sports. Becky Pepper-Jackson, the 11-year-old who brought the suit, will be allowed to try out for the girls’ cross-country team at her school. “When the government distinguishes between different groups of people, those distinctions must be supported by compelling reasons,” Goodwin ruled, adding, “At this point, I have been provided with scant evidence that this law addresses any problem at all, let alone an important problem.”

Avatara Smith-Carrigan, an attorney for Lambda Legal and the lead attorney on Becky’s case, hailed the injunction as a temporary victory on behalf of trans children. Studies have found that suicide rates increase dramatically among trans youth who face discrimination or harassment in their communities, and advocates are concerned that the GOP’s push to bar trans kids from school sports will cause real and lasting harm. “They’re impacting kids who just want to be out there playing with their peers,” Smith-Carrigan said.

In the end, they added, the GOP’s willingness to put children at risk exposes the true nature of its campaign over school sports. It’s not about keeping sports competitive – it’s about defending a narrow and hurtful definition of who is considered female.

“The messaging from these legislators who are trying to pass these really horrible and discriminatory laws is that they’re advocating for fairness in sports,” Smith-Carrigan said. “We know that that’s not the case.”

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MAGA Diaspora: We’re tracking the 327 most important lobbyists, authors, and consultants in Trump’s post-White House influence network

Donald Trump behind the White House with a group of people who used to work for his administration behind him on a red background.

Donald Trump remains a powerful presence in American politics despite being deplatformed and defenestrated. The same goes for the people who worked for his administration.

That’s why Insider embarked over the past several months on a project to track down as many members as possible from Team Trump who served in an official capacity between January 2017 and January 2021.

Some of them you’ll surely remember, like ex-White House senior advisors Jared Kushner and Steve Bannon. Others made it through the last few years without becoming household names.

Ultimately, we identified 327 Trump alumni for our comprehensive database. There, we break down who are now the big shot lawyers, high-powered lobbyists, aspiring authors, and political consultants already busy trying to win elections for MAGA-minded candidates in 2022 and beyond.

Our project also highlights who from the Trump orbit ended up building new political entities aimed at sinking President Joe Biden’s agenda and enacting controversial changes to election laws that favor Republicans.

We pinpoint the location of a couple of the biggest names from the Trump Cabinet who were mired in scandals during their time in the administration but now are trying to move on to new jobs. And we’ve identified the ex-Trump staffers who are now serving as aides to members of Congress, plus a couple of former administration officials who have become elected officials themselves.

Of course, many Trump aides also are acting like they don’t want to be found at all. At least not yet.

Check out the full Trump alumni database and our additional stories here:

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The Cost of Inequity: How and why inequity persists in the institutions that govern daily life in America

A receipt with the words "The Cost of Inequity" written on it on on a blue background.

Inequity, not to be confused with inequality, is the result of injustice and cultural exclusion. Cost of Inequity explores how and why inequity persists in the institutions that govern daily life in America while illustrating the real economic cost to society.

From education to the workplace, banks, healthcare and more, this series examines the historical causes, current policies and societal norms that perpetuate unfair, avoidable differences for marginalized groups.

Insider also conducted a survey of over 1100 American workers to examine the challenges businesses face in fulfilling DEI programs. Detailed results of the survey will be published in the coming weeks.

Read the original article on Business Insider

How to land a job at Blackstone, according to the private-equity giant’s president and its HR head

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Blackstone president and COO Jon Gray was hired as an analyst at the firm in 1992

Jon Gray still remembers what it was like when he was hired as an entry-level analyst at a seven-year-old private-equity shop in New York City in 1992.

“It was a tiny place … I think there were 80 or 90 people,” Gray said of Blackstone, a firm that would go on to become the world’s largest alternative investment manager and, during Gray’s time as head of global real estate, its largest property owner.

Fresh out of the University of Pennsylvania, Gray was interviewed by the Blackstone cofounders Stephen Schwarzman and Pete Peterson themselves. He couldn’t have predicted that he would eventually be named Blackstone’s president and chief operating officer in 2018, becoming one of the most powerful executives on Wall Street.

“For me, a kid from suburban Chicago, I was like, ‘Oh my gosh, this seems really exciting.’ And it was obviously terrifying being interviewed,” he recalled. “And by the way, starting was terrifying. I remember being so nervous having my first job here.”

Granted, private-equity firms’ associate hiring is looking a little different than in recent years. Recruiters first delayed the kickoff of the ultra-competitive process in the fall of 2020 in light of the coronavirus pandemic. Now the traditional on-cycle associate recruiting process likely won’t start until late summer or early fall 2021, Insider previously reported.

In October of 2020, we spoke with Gray, headhunters who recruit for the firm, and Blackstone’s global head of human resources to learn what it takes to stand out. From how to ace interviews to deals you need to be familiar with, here’s what they told us.

SUBSCRIBE NOW TO READ THE FULL STORY: Blackstone president Jon Gray reveals how to stand out to land a job at the ultra-competitive firm

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Restaurant and retail owners have 2 options nowadays: stop treating their workers like garbage or stop having workers at all

Business owner with a sad emoji face for a head holding bags of money with a protesting supporting higher wages with an annoyed face emoji as a head on a green background.
“I made more money on unemployment than I did working at the bar because they only gave me lunch shifts and I was part time,” said Mark, a former bartender in New York.

  • Restaurant and retail staff have been underpaid and overworked for decades.
  • Government aid during the economic crisis has allowed workers in the industry to reassess going back to work.
  • Employer claims that people won’t come back out of laziness are increasingly laughable.
  • This is an opinion column. The thoughts expressed are those of the author.
  • Eoin Higgins is a journalist based in New England and Contributing Opinion Writer.
  • This is an opinion column. The thoughts expressed are those of the author.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Sean Earl is a 10-year veteran of the restaurant business who was out of a job when the coronavirus pandemic hit. He still doesn’t know if he’ll return to the industry – especially without the promise of worker protections and better conditions on the job.

“If I returned it would have to be somewhere with union representation or at least a co-op situation,” Earl said. “Some way of having better control over what happens in the workplace.”

I talked to Earl this week for a story highlighting the voices of service industry workers at my newsletter The Flashpoint. The piece pushed back against a number of recent articles featuring business owners blaming unemployment insurance and government aid for contributing to laziness on the part of staff to not return to their jobs.

Over and over again, the people I talked to told me that while the aid provided security and support at a crucial time, they weren’t passing up work just to sit around. Rather, they were looking at other options because of the service industry’s terrible working conditions and low pay.

“The pandemic kind of stripped away the illusion of fairness and equity in the industry,” said Sarah, a restaurant professional who is on her way out of the business and off to grad school.

Reassessing things

One of the first casualties of the pandemic last year was the service industry. With businesses forced to shut down due to health restrictions and few people willing to risk going out anyway, restaurants shuttered around the country and prepared to wait out the disease.

Stimulus and aid packages passed by the federal government under both former President Donald Trump and President Joe Biden delivered relief. In addition to aid for businesses, programs like the $600 weekly bonus COVID unemployment payments that came with the first stimulus were a huge help to workers forced out of their jobs by the shutdown.

It is true that for some service industry workers, what they made staying home was more than what they made at work. Indeed, that was part of the point of the pandemic aid; to keep people whole after losing their jobs to public health orders that were no fault of their own.

And now, as things begin to open back up, people are pushing for these benefits to be cut off – despite lingering health concerns and ongoing aid.

“There’s no reason for workers to come back to their old jobs earning the same poverty wages, especially since more than 100 million Americans remain unvaccinated, and there’s still a stable safety net in place until autumn,” writer and former restaurant worker Carl Gibson wrote for Insider on May 2. “It’s not that unemployed restaurant workers don’t want jobs – we just have more options now.”

The time off prompted a reevaluation of not only their role in the business but industry practices in general. The service industry is a notoriously harsh and unforgiving business that makes intense demands on staff for low pay and anarchic schedules.

“I made more money on unemployment than I did working at the bar because they only gave me lunch shifts and I was part time,” said Mark, a former bartender in New York. “They also over-staffed so there were fewer tips per person, I went from making $250-ish a week to a solid $600 a week from unemployment.”

But now that many of these workers have been able to step back from an industry where low pay and abusive practices were the norm these businesses face a challenge: improve working conditions or shut down.

Tall Tales

As the country has begun to reopen, some politicians and pundits are claiming that staff are uninterested in returning to work because they’re lazy. Signs on windows of shuttered businesses or temporarily closed outlets claim that people aren’t willing to come back because they’d rather sit back and do nothing.

The media has helped spread this narrative, too. Articles from NPR, Fox News, and others have portrayed business owners as hard on their luck victims of circumstance who just can’t catch a break. Workers – if they’re included in the stories at all – are presented as shiftless, careless louts who aren’t thinking of what’s best for the company’s bottom line.

The reality is different, Lucas, a former Uber Eats driver, told me.

“We’re sick of being called lazy bums because we’re sick of thankless, s—-paying jobs,” Lucas said.

Rather, Lucas and other workers I spoke to said they are finally asserting themselves after years of mistreatment and becoming more selective and holding out for incentives-or even considering leaving altogether if things don’t change. That’s what happened two weeks ago at a Dollar General store in Eliot, Maine. Three out of four of the store’s employees walked off the job and quit over the weekend due to their pay and the company’s disrespectful mistreatment. Two of them, Brendt Erikson and Hannah Barr, put signs up on the store’s door explaining why they quit, putting the blame squarely on Dollar General for the company’s disrespectful treatment of employees and low wages.

Erikson told me he wanted people to know that he and his comrades didn’t leave their jobs because they were lazy.

“You’ve probably seen on Twitter those signs on businesses that are closing due to understaffing because people don’t want to work,” Erikson said. “I have been thinking about those signs a lot lately. And I wanted to make a retort to those signs that actually told the truth of why people weren’t going to work there anymore.”

Best practices?

Despite claims that businesses are scrambling to attract workers, in many cases owners simply aren’t offering incentives for employees to return to customer-facing positions – as Ary Reich, a floor member at the National Museum of Mathematica in New York, told me.

“Less than a month after lockdown, after keeping us on to help them fix their broken website, they laid all eight of us off,” Reich said. “Since then we’ve received emails letting us know we all can have our jobs back if we want them, but they are not interested in raising our pay.”

That shows a misunderstanding of the power dynamic at play now – workers are able to decline offers to come back to their jobs without losing income for the first time in decades. Bosses who expected new workers to crawl back begging for jobs no longer indisputably have the upper hand in negotiations. So their attempts to strong arm staff back into the poor conditions and insufficient pay are falling flat.

Given this dynamic some restaurant owners are deciding to try and bring in newer, less experienced staff rather than rehire seasoned professionals – leading to more instability.

“A lot of folks I know in the fine dining world are struggling because many places closed during the pandemic and some are re-opening but instead of hiring back their old staff they are trying to hire new staff for less money or less front-of-house staff,” said Earl. “Which means more front-of-house will do more work for the same or less money.”

How well that’s working for the owners varies, but it seems clear from their complaints that staffing remains a concern.

Lessons learned…. maybe

But not everyone in the industry is willfully ignoring the new reality. Joseph Tiedmann, who works as an executive chef in New Orleans, told Eater’s Gaby del Valle this month that restaurants need to figure out how to change the business to pay people better and make the business a more desirable destination for workers.

“We need to make this an attractive business to work in,” said Tiedmann. “At the end of the day, it’s all about being able to do more for your employees.”

It still remains to be seen whether or not the owners of restaurants and other service industry businesses will end what’s effectively a capital strike and invest in their workforce.

But there is one simple trick to getting people to want to come and work for you, as Pittsburgh’s Klavon’s Ice Cream Parlor discovered: offer people more money. The outlet more than doubled its starting pay from $7.25 an hour to $15 an hour and saw immediate results.

“It was instant, overnight,” the parlor’s general manager Maya Johnson told the Pittsburgh Business Times. “We got thousands of applications that poured in.”

Restaurant owners have a choice to make. They can provide incentives for people to return to work in what’s still a dangerous, fraught time for staff to be in forward facing roles – or they can continue to try to shame workers into returning to their jobs. The former works, the latter doesn’t. Owners should take heed of that lesson and pay their staff more, not only because it’s the right thing to do but because it’s the path forward for the industry’s survival.

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These 12 people started their dream businesses from scratch. Here are the biggest lessons they learned from self-publishing on Amazon, writing copy, and hand-dying their own yarn

Examples of how to start your business, including dog walking, a food truck, urban farming, hair care, and dyed yarn.
A record number of people started new businesses last year, including dog walking, urban farming, and food trucks.

  • The pandemic upended many lives, but it didn’t overturn the entrepreneurial dream.
  • Applications for an employer ID reached 1.1 million through September 2020, a 12% increase from the prior year.
  • Here are 12 guides on how to start any business, from a modest urban farm to a food truck.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

The pandemic upended many lives, but it didn’t overturn the entrepreneurial dream.

A record number of people started new businesses last year. New applications for an employer ID in the US reached 1.1 million through September 2020, a 12% increase from the same time period in 2019, according to an analysis of US Census data by The Wall Street Journal.

For those who want to chase their entrepreneurial passions, here are 12 guides on how to start a business, from a dog-walking empire, to a modest urban farm, and even a food truck.

1. Copywriting business

sarah turner
Sarah Turner Agency offers freelance copywriting for clients in the medical and health sectors, content marketing strategy, and training programs for future copywriters.

Sarah Turner launched her eponymous copywriting agency in 2013, after leaving her job as a research assistant.

Sarah Turner Agency offers freelance copywriting for clients in the medical and health sectors, content marketing strategy, and training programs for future copywriters. Last year, Turner booked $2.6 million in revenue, according to documents verified by Insider. 

Read more about how Turner launched her copywriting business. 

2. Website flipping

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Chelsea Clarke is the founder of Blogs for Sale.

Chelsea Clarke is the founder of Blogs For Sale, a company that flips little-known websites into desirable online businesses that can generate $16,800 in a year.

Clarke said her startup took off last year as more people sought online revenue streams during the pandemic. In 2020, she earned $127,000 from flipping 13 websites and brokering sales for 50 more sites, documents reviewed by Insider verified. 

Read more about how Clarke built her website-flipping business. 

 

3. Instagram side hustle

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Today, Plant Kween has 311,000 followers and collaborates with brands like Spotify on curated content.

Christopher Griffin’s Instagram account, which is under the moniker Plant Kween, is devoted to pictures of the 200 plants living in their Brooklyn apartment, tips on caring for the greenery, and useful botanical knowledge. 

They started the account in winter 2016 — as a means of learning about something new after graduate school — grew it steadily to 311,000 followers and collaborates with brands like Spotify on curated content.

Griffin couldn’t disclose what they earn with the music-streaming service but a partnership with the fashion line Tonle, that sold $42,000 of non-binary clothing last year, netted them around $8,400, according to Tonle. 

Read more about how Griffin built their Instagram side-hustle. 

4. Urban farm

Joanna Bassi
Here’s how Joanna Bassi built an urban farm from scratch and her advice for fellow farming entrepreneurs, including how to pivot during a pandemic.

Joanna Bassi turned her unused backyard — measuring 150 feet by 75 feet — into an urban farm that could grow fresh produce for local establishments.

Bassi started from the ground up in January 2018, and by the following year, she netted nearly $6,000 in revenue from selling at farmers markets and local restaurants, according to documents viewed by Insider. 

In 2020, the pandemic temporarily closed Bassi’s restaurant clients and hurt business. She still managed to book nearly $7,000 by creating new revenue streams. 

Read more about how Bassi built her urban farming business. 

5. Pet care and dog-walking business

dog tricks
You can teach your dog to shake your hand with a simple command.

Jill Nelson took over her friend’s 15-year-old dog walking and pet sitting startup Hot Diggity in 2015. Since then, she’s scaled the Seattle office, opened a Vancouver location, and purchased Hot Diggity’s Portland, Oregon, outpost. 

Revenue for Hot Diggity’s three locations sank between 2019 to 2020 — Portland had the most drastic decline, falling from $2.1 million to $986,000, according to documents verified by Insider — but Nelson said the company weathered the storm and is already seeing an increase in bookings. 

Read more about how Nelson built her dog-walking and pet care business. 

6. Hand-dyed yarn business

Jake 1
Kenyon shared his advice for launching a business around your passion, building community support, and how he stands out in a crowded market.

In January, Jake Kenyon left his full-time job as a speech pathologist to pursue his side hustle: A hand-dyed yarn business called Kenyarn. The pandemic drove many consumers to crafts, like knitting and crocheting, which helped boost Kenyon’s business.

Kenyarn’s gross sales jumped from $33,000 in 2019 to $125,000 last year, and he’s on track to surpass that figure this year, according to documents viewed by Insider. 

Read more about how Kenyon built his hand-dyed yarn business. 

7. Food truck

food truck
Alessio Lacco and Sofia Arango opened a pizza-focused food truck, tapping Lacco’s 15-year background making Neapolitan pies and the truck he already owned.

Alessio Lacco and Sofia Arango launched Atlanta Pizza Truck last August as way to make money during the pandemic.

In its first five months of business, the couple booked $82,000 in sales, according to documents reviewed by Insider. In the first three months of 2021, they netted $53,000 in sales and believe they are on track to at least double sales from 2020.

Read more about how Lacco and Arango built their food truck business. 

8. Hair care business

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Stormi Steele

Stormi Steele used to make hair care products in her kitchen while working in salon in 2012. She’d mix over-the-counter ingredients, such as flaxseed oil and vitamin E, in an effort to create a solution that would help her hair grow. 

Today, Steele is the founder of Canvas Beauty Brand, which booked nearly $20 million in revenue last year.

Read more about how Steele built her hair-care business. 

 

9. Pop-up bakery

abby love
On January 21, Abby Love opened her first bakery, Abby Jane Bakeshop, in Dripping Springs, Texas.

When the opening of Abby Love’s bakery was delayed due to the pandemic, she launched 10 pop-up bakeries around Dripping Springs, Texas to keep her brand alive, attract new customers, and boost revenue.

Love partnered with local businesses for her pop-ups, choosing establishments that didn’t sell baked goods and attracted the kind of customers who would appreciate her locally-sourced ingredients.

Read more about how Love built her pop-up bakery business.

10. Craft brewery business

Chris and Avery_HTB_LittlePondDigital
Christophe Gagne and Avery Schwenk are the cofounders of Hermit Thrush, a Brattleboro, Vermont-based brewery that exclusively makes sour beers.

Christophe Gagne and Avery Schwenk are the cofounders of Hermit Thrush, a 7-year-old Brattleboro, Vermont-based brewery that exclusively makes sour beers. 

Today the brewery has 21 taps and its canned varieties are sold in 9 states, plus DC. The brewery’s most popular concoction, Party Jam, is a collection of fruit-forward sours that typically sells for $19.99 on the company’s website. What’s more, Hermit Thrush booked $1.5 million in revenue last year, according to documents viewed by Insider. 

Read more about how Gagne and Schwenk built their craft brew business. 

11. Furniture maker

furniture
Matthew Nafranowicz, a master craftsman, started doing upholstery work more than two decades ago.

In 2002, Matthew Nafranowicz opened his furniture upholstery storefront, The Straight Thread, in Madison, Wisconsin. 

Furniture upholstery represents an estimated $1 billion market in the US, and government data shows it employs roughly 30,000 people.

Read more about how Nafranowicz built his furniture upholstery business. 

12. Self-published author

sally

Sally Miller is a self-published author who’s written and co-authored 15 books on Amazon. She made $9,000 in royalties in January, her highest amount to date, according to documents viewed by Insider. 

“It meets my two criteria, which is that I’m making money and doing something I really enjoy,” said Miller, who built a following through her subject matter, which focuses on how people can make money through various entrepreneurial ventures, like Airbnb and ghostwriting.

Read more about how Miller built her self-publishing business. 

Read the original article on Business Insider

The Master Your Money Bootcamp will help you put a price tag on your dreams – and figure out how to turn them into reality

Master Your Money decide what you want 2x1

The thing about dreams is that we often assume they’re completely out of reach. Sure, if $1 million came our way, we’d pay our student loan debt off in full. Or take a safari. Or buy a house. Or throw the wedding of our dreams. But without that windfall, who can afford it, right?

If you do the math, you might be surprised.

Over the next month, that’s what we’ll be focusing on: Putting a price tag on your dreams and creating a plan to help you afford them in the future. We’ll start with pinpointing what exactly it is you want to accomplish with your cash, identify the right first step to take, and identify any challenges standing in your way. Then, we’ll calculate exactly what this goal will cost, and lay out a timeline for how long it will take to achieve.

We’re not going into this blindly. We know that the ability to afford your dreams depends on a lot of things: your job, your living situation, your credit, and the flawed systems in the US that favor some people over others. We know that if you dream of a private island, you’ll probably need more than a month of strategizing. But if you dream of things like laying the groundwork to become debt-free, or a homeowner, or pay for your children’s college, we can get you started on that journey.

Welcome to the Master Your Money Bootcamp

Master Your Money Bootcamps are month-long challenges broken into simple one-week exercises to help you take control of your money.

Over the course of 2021, we’ll conduct four of these Bootcamps, each culminating in a free, live, virtual discussion among experts about how to make the most of the tasks you’ve already accomplished. You can take all four Bootcamps this year, or pick and choose the ones that give the guidance you need most.

For each exercise, you’ll get a detailed explanation of how to complete it and why it’s important. Use the hashtags #MasterYourMoney and #MasterYourMoneyBootcamp to share your thoughts, progress, and connect with others across our Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Instagram as you make your way through each exercise, then join us for the live events.

While you’re here, feel free to visit (or revisit) our first Master Your Money Bootcamp of the year, which broke down the major task of demystifying your finances into four achievable steps.

Our first Bootcamp exercise launches Monday, May 17, 2021. You don’t have to sign up – just dive in! Here’s what you’ll accomplish in just one month (we’ll link to each exercise as it goes live):

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How to start 12 small businesses from scratch – whether you’re into copywriting, urban farming, or food trucks

Examples of how to start your business, including dog walking, a food truck, urban farming, hair care, and dyed yarn.
A record number of people started new businesses last year, including dog walking, urban farming, and food trucks.

  • The pandemic upended many lives, but it didn’t overturn the entrepreneurial dream.
  • Applications for an employer ID reached 1.1 million through September in 2020, a 12% increase from the prior year.
  • Here are 12 guides on how to start any business, from a modest urban farm to a food truck.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

The pandemic upended many lives, but it didn’t overturn the entrepreneurial dream.

A record number of people started new businesses last year. New applications for an employer ID in the US reached 1.1 million through September 2020, a 12% increase from the same time period in 2019, according to an analysis of US Census data by The Wall Street Journal.

For those who want to chase their entrepreneurial passions, here are 12 guides on how to start a business, from a dog-walking empire, to a modest urban farm, and even a food truck.

1. Copywriting business

sarah turner
Sarah Turner Agency offers freelance copywriting for clients in the medical and health sectors, content marketing strategy, and training programs for future copywriters.

Sarah Turner launched her eponymous copywriting agency in 2013, after leaving her job as a research assistant.

Sarah Turner Agency offers freelance copywriting for clients in the medical and health sectors, content marketing strategy, and training programs for future copywriters. Last year, Turner booked $2.6 million in revenue, according to documents verified by Insider. 

Read more about how Turner launched her copywriting business. 

2. Website flipping

chelsea
Chelsea Clarke is the founder of Blogs for Sale.

Chelsea Clarke is the founder of Blogs For Sale, a company that flips little-known websites into desirable online businesses that can generate $16,800 in a year.

Clarke said her startup took off last year as more people sought online revenue streams during the pandemic. In 2020, she earned $127,000 from flipping 13 websites and brokering sales for 50 more sites, documents reviewed by Insider verified. 

Read more about how Clarke built her website-flipping business. 

 

3. Instagram side hustle

PK.JPG
Today, Plant Kween has 311,000 followers and collaborates with brands like Spotify on curated content.

Christopher Griffin’s Instagram account, which is under the moniker Plant Kween, is devoted to pictures of the 200 plants living in their Brooklyn apartment, tips on caring for the greenery, and useful botanical knowledge. 

They started the account in winter 2016 — as a means of learning about something new after graduate school — grew it steadily to 311,000 followers and collaborates with brands like Spotify on curated content.

Griffin couldn’t disclose what they earn with the music-streaming service but a partnership with the fashion line Tonle, that sold $42,000 of non-binary clothing last year, netted them around $8,400, according to Tonle. 

Read more about how Griffin built their Instagram side-hustle. 

4. Urban farm

Joanna Bassi
Here’s how Joanna Bassi built an urban farm from scratch and her advice for fellow farming entrepreneurs, including how to pivot during a pandemic.

Joanna Bassi turned her unused backyard — measuring 150 feet by 75 feet — into an urban farm that could grow fresh produce for local establishments.

Bassi started from the ground up in January 2018, and by the following year, she netted nearly $6,000 in revenue from selling at farmers markets and local restaurants, according to documents viewed by Insider. 

In 2020, the pandemic temporarily closed Bassi’s restaurant clients and hurt business. She still managed to book nearly $7,000 by creating new revenue streams. 

Read more about how Bassi built her urban farming business. 

5. Pet care and dog-walking business

dog tricks
You can teach your dog to shake your hand with a simple command.

Jill Nelson took over her friend’s 15-year-old dog walking and pet sitting startup Hot Diggity in 2015. Since then, she’s scaled the Seattle office, opened a Vancouver location, and purchased Hot Diggity’s Portland, Oregon, outpost. 

Revenue for Hot Diggity’s three locations sank between 2019 to 2020 — Portland had the most drastic decline, falling from $2.1 million to $986,000, according to documents verified by Insider — but Nelson said the company weathered the storm and is already seeing an increase in bookings. 

Read more about how Nelson built her dog-walking and pet care business. 

6. Hand-dyed yarn business

Jake 1
Kenyon shared his advice for launching a business around your passion, building community support, and how he stands out in a crowded market.

In January, Jake Kenyon left his full-time job as a speech pathologist to pursue his side hustle: A hand-dyed yarn business called Kenyarn. The pandemic drove many consumers to crafts, like knitting and crocheting, which helped boost Kenyon’s business.

Kenyarn’s gross sales jumped from $33,000 in 2019 to $125,000 last year, and he’s on track to surpass that figure this year, according to documents viewed by Insider. 

Read more about how Kenyon built his hand-dyed yarn business. 

7. Food truck

food truck
Alessio Lacco and Sofia Arango opened a pizza-focused food truck, tapping Lacco’s 15-year background making Neapolitan pies and the truck he already owned.

Alessio Lacco and Sofia Arango launched Atlanta Pizza Truck last August as way to make money during the pandemic.

In its first five months of business, the couple booked $82,000 in sales, according to documents reviewed by Insider. In the first three months of 2021, they netted $53,000 in sales and believe they are on track to at least double sales from 2020.

Read more about how Lacco and Arango built their food truck business. 

8. Hair care business

607494833e3fe7001882a2b7
Stormi Steele

Stormi Steele used to make hair care products in her kitchen while working in salon in 2012. She’d mix over-the-counter ingredients, such as flaxseed oil and vitamin E, in an effort to create a solution that would help her hair grow. 

Today, Steele is the founder of Canvas Beauty Brand, which booked nearly $20 million in revenue last year.

Read more about how Steele built her hair-care business. 

 

9. Pop-up bakery

abby love
On January 21, Abby Love opened her first bakery, Abby Jane Bakeshop, in Dripping Springs, Texas.

When the opening of Abby Love’s bakery was delayed due to the pandemic, she launched 10 pop-up bakeries around Dripping Springs, Texas to keep her brand alive, attract new customers, and boost revenue.

Love partnered with local businesses for her pop-ups, choosing establishments that didn’t sell baked goods and attracted the kind of customers who would appreciate her locally-sourced ingredients.

Read more about how Love built her pop-up bakery business.

10. Craft brewery business

Chris and Avery_HTB_LittlePondDigital
Christophe Gagne and Avery Schwenk are the cofounders of Hermit Thrush, a Brattleboro, Vermont-based brewery that exclusively makes sour beers.

Christophe Gagne and Avery Schwenk are the cofounders of Hermit Thrush, a 7-year-old Brattleboro, Vermont-based brewery that exclusively makes sour beers. 

Today the brewery has 21 taps and its canned varieties are sold in 9 states, plus DC. The brewery’s most popular concoction, Party Jam, is a collection of fruit-forward sours that typically sells for $19.99 on the company’s website. What’s more, Hermit Thrush booked $1.5 million in revenue last year, according to documents viewed by Insider. 

Read more about how Gagne and Schwenk built their craft brew business. 

11. Furniture maker

furniture
Matthew Nafranowicz, a master craftsman, started doing upholstery work more than two decades ago.

In 2002, Matthew Nafranowicz opened his furniture upholstery storefront, The Straight Thread, in Madison, Wisconsin. 

Furniture upholstery represents an estimated $1 billion market in the US, and government data shows it employs roughly 30,000 people.

Read more about how Nafranowicz built his furniture upholstery business. 

12. Self-published author

sally

Sally Miller is a self-published author who’s written and co-authored 15 books on Amazon. She made $9,000 in royalties in January, her highest amount to date, according to documents viewed by Insider. 

“It meets my two criteria, which is that I’m making money and doing something I really enjoy,” said Miller, who built a following through her subject matter, which focuses on how people can make money through various entrepreneurial ventures, like Airbnb and ghostwriting.

Read more about how Miller built her self-publishing business. 

Read the original article on Business Insider

The most transformative CEOs of 2021

Most impressive CEOs collage including Shantanu Narayen of Adobe, Albert Bourla of Pfizer, Mary Barra of GM, Jensen Huang of NVIDIA
From left: Shantanu Narayen, the CEO of Adobe; Albert Bourla, the CEO of Pfizer; Mary Barra, the CEO of GM; Jensen Huang, the CEO of Nvidia.

Leadership in 2021 is marked by transformation.

Of business models, of workforces, of organizations themselves. Insider’s inaugural list of the Most Transformative CEOs celebrates the four executives who are best meeting the needs of their many stakeholders. They do not merely protect the bottom line. They also devise strategies to respond to changing markets, tackle the climate crisis, and serve as stewards for the well-being of their employees – and the world.

Insider is proud to announce this first class:

Mary Barra, the CEO of General Motors

Albert Bourla, the CEO of Pfizer

Jensen Huang, the CEO of Nvidia

Shantanu Narayen, the CEO of Adobe

Insider arrived at this list by way of both quantitative and qualitative analysis. We considered the 100 CEOs of the largest publicly traded US companies by market capitalization on the S&P 500 who have been in their positions since at least January 2019. We ruled out executives who are on their way to stepping down, including Ken Frazier, the CEO of Merck.

We evaluated companies and CEOs across measures of recent financial performance, ratings on employee review sites Comparably and Glassdoor, typical employee compensation and the CEO-to-median-pay ratio, and the 2021 Just Capital ranking of companies’ commitment to social responsibility.

To choose the CEOs we wanted to feature, we considered the above metrics, as well as a qualitative sense of leaders guiding their firms through a historically difficult year. We believe these CEOs exemplify the traits and achievements needed to survive and thrive in that challenging environment.

Keep scrolling to learn more about what makes each CEO on Insider’s list deserving of the title of Most Transformative CEO.

MARY BARRA, the CEO of General Motors

Mary Barra, CEO of General Motors Company
Mary Barra, the CEO of General Motors.

Without doubt, the most successful CEO in GM’s recent four or five decades. Bob Lutz, a former GM vice chairman

READ FULL PROFILE


ALBERT BOURLA, the CEO of Pfizer

Albert Bourla, CEO of Pfizer
Albert Bourla, the CEO of Pfizer.

What they’ve done on the vaccine is remarkable. How quickly they’ve developed it, and now getting it out, especially in the US, is incredible. Vamil Divan, a senior biopharmaceuticals research analyst at Mizuho

READ FULL PROFILE


JENSEN HUANG, the CEO of Nvidia

Jensen Huang, CEO of Nvidia
Jensen Huang, the CEO of Nvidia.

One of these extremely rare individuals who has taken a zero-revenue company to $20 billion Rene Haas, Nvidia’s executive vice president

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SHANTANU NARAYEN, the CEO of Adobe

Shantanu Narayen, CEO of Adobe
Shantanu Narayen, the CEO of Adobe.

His ability to connect dots across different parts of the business, across different market trends, and then very succinctly distill the key decisions that need to be made is something I marvel at. Amit Ahuja, Adobe’s VP of Experience Cloud

READ FULL PROFILE

Read the original article on Business Insider

Marijuana legalization is sweeping the US. See every state where cannabis is legal.

medical marijuana cbd hemp weed smoking joint leafly flowers cannabis cox 82
  • Marijuana is legal for adults in 15 states and Washington, D.C. Medical marijuana is legal in 36.
  • New Jersey, Arizona, Montana, and South Dakota voted to legalize recreational marijuana in November’s elections.
  • New York legalized recreational cannabis on March 31.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

Marijuana legalization is spreading around the US.

Since 2012, 15 states and Washington, DC, have legalized marijuana for adults over the age of 21. And 36 states have legalized medical marijuana – meaning that a majority of Americans have access to marijuana, whether medically or recreationally.

New York became the latest state to embrace cannabis when Gov. Andrew Cuomo signed a bill legalizing marijuana on March 31. His move came shortly after New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy signed legislation officially legalizing marijuana in his state.

New Jersey was one of four states, along with Arizona, Montana, and South Dakota, where voters backed legalizing recreational cannabis in November. Voters in Mississippi approved the creation of a medical cannabis program.

Virginia and New Mexico are also close to legalizing recreational cannabis.

Some states that passed medical or recreational legislation through ballot measures have yet to iron out the details. For that reason Insider does not include South Dakota or Mississippi in our tally of markets where the substance is legal. Both states have faced legislative opposition to rolling out their programs.

Though Canada legalized marijuana federally in 2018, the US has not followed suit, forcing states to chart their own courses. As it stands, marijuana is still considered an illegal Schedule I drug by the US federal government.

Joe Biden’s victory in the presidential election and the Democratic party’s control of Congress could give marijuana a bigger boost in the US. In March, the SAFE Banking Act – a bill that would help cannabis businesses access banks – was reintroduced in both chambers of Congress.

Biden has said he would support federal decriminalization of the drug, and Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer has said that marijuana reform will be a priority for the Senate this year.

All the states where marijuana is legal:

This article was first published in January 2018 and has been updated with new information about where cannabis is legal. It was updated on April 1 with New York’s legalization. Melia Russell contributed to an earlier version of this story.

Alaska

cannabis
A cannabis-testing laboratory in Santa Ana, California.

Adults 21 and over can light up in Alaska. In 2015, the northernmost US state made it legal for residents to use, possess, and transport up to an ounce of marijuana — roughly a sandwich bag full — for recreational use. The first pot shop opened for business in 2016.

Alaska has pounced on the opportunity to make its recreational-pot shops a destination for tourists. More than 2 million people visit Alaska annually and spend $2 billion.

Arizona

Curaleaf
Nate McDonald, General Manager of Curaleaf NY operations, talks about medical marijuana plants.

Arizona in 2020 voted to legalize cannabis for all adults over the age of 21

The measure had support from almost 60% of Arizona voters, according to Decision Desk HQ. 

The ballot measure was backed by a number of cannabis giants, including Curaleaf, Cresco, and Harvest Enterprises. 

The Arizona Department of Health Services began accepting applications for adult-use licenses on January 19. Approvals were issued just three days later on January 22. Sales began immediately.

Arizona rolled out adult-use sales faster than any other state that voted to pass recreational cannabis in the November elections. Companies already operating in the state’s medical market had a first crack at recreational customers.

 

 

California

cannabis
A MedMen store in West Hollywood, California, on January 2, 2018.

In 1996, California became the first state to legalize medical marijuana. California became even more pot-friendly in 2016 when it made it legal to use and carry up to 1 ounce of marijuana.

The law also permits adults 21 and over to buy up to 8 grams of marijuana concentrates, which are found in edibles, and grow no more than six marijuana plants per household.

Colorado

marijuana
A marijuana leaf.

In Colorado, there are more marijuana dispensaries than Starbucks and McDonald’s combined. The state joined Washington in becoming the first two states to fully legalize the drug in 2012.

Residents and tourists over the age of 21 can buy up to 1 ounce of marijuana or 8 grams of concentrates. Some Colorado counties and cities have passed more restrictive laws.

Illinois

JB Pritzker
Illinois Gov. J.B. Pritzker.

Illinois lawmakers in June 2019 passed a bill that legalized the possession and commercial sale of marijuana in the state starting on January 1, 2020.

Gov. J.B. Pritzker, who made marijuana legalization a core component of his campaign for the governor’s office, signed the bill into law.

Illinois is the one of the few states to legalize marijuana sales through a state legislature, rather than a ballot initiative.

Maine

marijuana
Harvested cannabis plants at Hexo Corp.’s facilities in Gatineau, Quebec, on September 26, 2018.

A ballot initiative in 2016 gave Maine residents the right to possess up to 2.5 ounces of marijuana, more than double the limit in most other states.

Massachusetts

cannabis
Medicinal cannabis cigarettes on July 12, 2018, at a cultivation facility in Milford, Massachusetts.

Massachusetts was the first state on the East Coast to legalize marijuana after voters approved the measure in 2016. 

Marijuana dispensaries opened their doors to consumers in November 2018. Adults over the age of 21 can purchase up to 1 ounce of marijuana but cannot consume it in public.

Michigan

marijuana
The Far West Holistic Center dispensary on November 7, 2018, in Detroit.

Voters in Michigan passed Proposition 1 in 2018, making it the first state in the Midwest to legalize the possession and sale of marijuana for adults over the age of 21. Adults can possess up to 2.5 ounces of marijuana, and residents can grow up to 12 plants at home.

The law is more permissive than other states with legal marijuana: Most allow residents to possess only up to 1 ounce at a time.

Montana

Cannabis
A CPlant employee organizes a box of hemp for export at the company’s farm on the outskirts of Tala, Uruguay, Thursday, Aug. 13, 2020.

Montana in 2020 voted to legalize recreational marijuana for adults 21 and over

Montana residents are officially allowed to use marijuana as of January 1, 2021. A year later, the state will begin to open up applications for dispensaries. 

New Jersey

cannabis
A CPlant employee trims a hemp flower for export at the company’s farm on the outskirts of Tala, Uruguay, Thursday, Aug. 13, 2020.

New Jersey in 2020 voted to legalize recreational marijuana for adults 21 and older, opening a market that could near $1 billion.

In February, Gov. Phil Murphy signed the legalization legislation, after months of back-and-forth arguments about criminal penalties for minors possessing marijuana and the proper way to set up a licensing framework for cannabis sales in the state, among other details. Sales of cannabis for adult use could start in the second half of this year, analysts at Cowen said.

New York

new york when is weed legal timeline
A man holds a sign at a pro-legalization rally outside of New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s office in Manhattan

After two failed attempts to legalize adult-use cannabis in New York, the state finally passed recreational marijuana on March 31, 2021.

Though New Yorkers are now able to possess and smoke cannabis legally in the state, sales aren’t expected to begin for at least a year.

Andrew Carter, an analyst at Stifel, said he expects recreational cannabis sales to begin in late 2022. Analysts from Cantor Fitzgerald and Stifel estimated that New York could become a $5 billion cannabis market by 2025.

Nevada

marijuana recreational dispensary las vegas nevada
The Essence cannabis dispensary on July 1, 2017, in Las Vegas.

Residents and tourists who are 21 and over can buy 1 ounce of marijuana or one-eighth of an ounce of edibles or concentrates in Nevada.

There’s bad news if you want to grow your own bud, though. Nevada residents must live 25 miles outside the nearest dispensary to be eligible for a grower’s license.

Oregon

marijuana cannabis cost Canada United States
Oregon’s Finest medical-marijuana dispensary in Portland, Oregon, on April 8, 2014.

Oregon legalized marijuana in 2015, and sales in the state started October 1 of that year. 

South Dakota

Aurora Cannabis
A team member of Aurora Cannabis works in the grow room at Aurora Sky cannabis growing greenhouse in Alberta, Canada, in this 2018 handout image.

South Dakota in 2020 voted to legalize both medical and recreational cannabis, the first time a state has voted in favor of both at the same time.

State lawmakers have until April 2022 to create rules around cannabis, including regulations around dispensaries.  

Vermont

cannabis
Cannabis plants in a laboratory.

Vermont became the first state to legalize marijuana through the legislature, rather than a ballot initiative, when Republic Gov. Phil Scott signed a bill into law in January 2018.

Adults in the Green Mountain State can carry up to 1 ounce of marijuana and grow no more than two plants for recreational use. The law went into effect in July 2018. But it was limited in scope. It didn’t establish a legal market for the production and sale of the drug.

In 2020, the state legislature passed a bill that would allow for adult-use sales in the state. All localities must opt-in to allow for dispensaries, however. Sales are expected in 2022.

Washington

medical marijuana
A medical-marijuana plantation on March 21, 2017.

Marijuana was legalized for recreational use in Washington in 2012.

The state allows people to carry up to 1 ounce of marijuana, but they must use the drug for medicinal purposes to be eligible for a grower’s license.

Washington, DC

Capitol Hill sunset

Residents in the nation’s capital voted overwhelmingly to legalize marijuana for adult use in November 2014.

The bill took effect in 2015, allowing people to possess 2 ounces or less of marijuana and “gift” up to an ounce, if neither money nor goods or services are exchanged.

Read the original article on Business Insider