With their perks and high pay, tech companies have become top destinations for marketers. Google paid a product marketing manager as much as $315,000 in 2021, for example, with Facebook paying about $222,000 for a similar role.
When hiring from abroad, companies have to file paperwork with the US Department of Labor’s Office of Foreign Labor Certification, which releases that salary information every quarter.
Using that information, Insider created a snapshot of how the companies compensate their employees.
This information is derived from 2020-2021 base salary information only. Many firms offer bonuses and equity options to compensate employees.
Our full analysis details the base salaries for roles ranging from associates to SVPs and managing directors.
We combed through public data to get a picture of Snap’s salary levels. The data, released by the US Department of Labor’s Office of Foreign Labor Certification, shows how much Snap offered to pay employees who it wanted to hire in the US through work visas.
Snap offered certain US staffers between October 2020 and March 2021 annual salaries ranging $59,000 to $500,000 for various roles, according to the data.
Snap said it’s committed to paying all employees a livable wage that “contributes to healthy work-life integration and to the local economy in which we work.” It offers a minimum of $15,000 in equity grants to new hires, and said its baseline annual pay rate for employees at its headquarters in Santa Monica is $70,000.
Our full analysis breaks down salaries for jobs including product, research, engineering, and marketing roles.
We pored over public data to get a snapshot of Spotify’s salary levels. The data, released by the US Department of Labor’s Office of Foreign Labor Certification, shows how much Spotify offered to pay employees who it wanted to hire in the US through work visas.
Spotify offered certain US staffers between October 2019 and March 2021 annual base salaries ranging from $60,000 to $260,00 for a variety of roles, according to the data.
Our full analysis breaks down salaries for jobs including marketing, research, engineering, finance and administrative roles.
Police work can be one of the best-paid professions in the United States.
According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the 2020 median salary for a police officer was US$67,290 – more than one-third higher than the national median of $48,769 for all occupations. Many officers probably earn much more, because the bureau’s analysis is based on hourly wages for a typical work year of 2,080 hours and does not include overtime – one of the factors that can drive an officer’s yearly income even higher.
Although there is a great deal of variation across the nation’s roughly 18,000 police departments, the agency also reports that salaries for police have largely climbed in the past five years – from an 8.8% increase in Mississippi, the state that overall pays its police the least, to a 21% increase in Hawaii, one of the best-paying states.
While efforts to control police budgets have succeeded in Austin, Denver, and Oakland, among others, the Biden administration recently announced that COVID-19 relief funds can be used to hire police officers to combat the rise in gun violence.
Somewhat predictably due to cost of living, California topped the list at $101,380, followed by Alaska at $88,030, where the cost of living also drives salaries higher. New Jersey, Washington state, and Hawaii round out the top five.
All of the 10 departments with the lowest-paid officers are located in the South, where Mississippi police officers earn slightly more than one-third of their California counterparts.
Large cities clearly offer higher wages to their police officers, as do some cities surrounding large metropolitan areas. The Los Angeles Police Department currently advertises a starting salary of $70,804 a year. That’s up from the 2015 starting annual salary of $59,717 – an 18.5% increase over just six years.
Larger, better-paying police departments attract officers from smaller departments by offering more pay and better training for experienced officers. This often leaves a void that small agencies struggle to fill with qualified candidates.
There are three main drivers of police take-home pay: overtime, education, and competition.
In his recent trial for the murder of George Floyd, Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin was represented by an attorney paid for by his union, the Minneapolis Police Federation. This benefit is only a small part of the union’s 128-page labor agreement with the city, which details salaries, vacation, sick leave, medical insurance, grievance procedures and, in particular, overtime pay.
Across the country, police officers typically receive “time and a half” for every hour worked beyond the standard 40-hour week, meaning a pay rate that combines their regular hourly rate plus an additional 50%.
Most union agreements also stipulate higher pay for other work deemed “overtime,” such as off-duty court appearances. They also stipulate other after-hours pay boosts, such as a minimum of four hours’ pay for officers called back to duty for any reason.
In practice, these extra pay arrangements have a huge effect on driving up the size of police budgets. A few examples:
In Los Angeles, where the second-largest police force in the US boasts salaries of $83,144 after two years of employment plus an annual 1.5% cost-of-living increase, the union recently negotiated $245 million in overtime pay for its officers.
City governments typically budget for some police officer overtime, since that extra income does not count toward an officer’s eventual retirement pay and reduces the need to hire additional employees. However, unanticipated events such as national disasters, public demonstrations, and political rallies all result in overtime pay for cops that cities must pay whether or not they planned for it:
Palm Beach, Florida, paid $3.26 million in police overtime for former President Donald Trump’s visits to his Mar-a-Lago resort over a period of just 27 days from late 2017 into early 2018.
Few local law enforcement agencies require a four-year college degree, but most offer educational incentives that range from a 2% annual salary increase for earning an associate’s degree to 10% for a bachelor’s degree.
More police officers are leaving the profession before retirement age, according to a 2019 study by the Police Executive Research Forum. The group has also found that the number of applicants for police jobs has steadily declined over the past 10 years. So departments trying to attract new recruits often go beyond tempting salaries by offering incentives like assistance with relocation, housing and childcare, education pay, college tuition reimbursement, health club memberships, and employee signing bonuses.
At the New York Police Department, the nation’s largest force, the starting salary is a relatively modest $42,000 a year. But the department highlights on its website that starting benefits include “holiday pay, longevity pay, uniform allowance, night differential, and overtime,” which together with salary can boost annual compensation to more than $100,000.
Another trend to watch: Not only are police salaries rising, but the size of police forces also continues to grow. The Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasts a 5% growth in police jobs from 2019 to 2029, from 813,500 to an estimated 854,200, which is faster on average than other occupations.
25. Conservation scientists had a median annual salary of $64,020.
Total number of employees in the US: 22,020
What they do, according to O*NET: Manage, improve, and protect natural resources to maximize their use without damaging the environment. May conduct soil surveys and develop plans to eliminate soil erosion or to protect rangelands. May instruct farmers, agricultural production managers, or ranchers in best ways to use crop rotation, contour plowing, or terracing to conserve soil and water; in the number and kind of livestock and forage plants best suited to particular ranges; and in range and farm improvements, such as fencing and reservoirs for stock watering.
24. Soil and plant scientists had a median annual salary of $66,120.
Total number of employees in the US: 13,950
What they do, according to O*NET: Conduct research in breeding, physiology, production, yield, and management of crops and agricultural plants or trees, shrubs, and nursery stock, their growth in soils, and control of pests; or study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. May classify and map soils and investigate effects of alternative practices on soil and crop productivity.
23. Anthropologists and archeologists had a median annual salary of $66,130.
Total number of employees in the US: 7,180
What they do, according to O*NET: Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings.
22. Zoologists and wildlife biologists had a median annual salary of $66,350.
Total number of employees in the US: 17,200
What they do, according to O*NET: Study the origins, behavior, diseases, genetics, and life processes of animals and wildlife. May specialize in wildlife research and management. May collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water habitats.
21. Environmental scientists and specialists had a median annual salary of $73,230.
Total number of employees in the US: 84,610
What they do, according to O*NET: Conduct research or perform investigation for the purpose of identifying, abating, or eliminating sources of pollutants or hazards that affect either the environment or the health of the population. Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, may collect, synthesize, study, report, and recommend action based on data derived from measurements or observations of air, food, soil, water, and other sources.
20. Food scientists and technologists had a median annual salary of $73,450.
Total number of employees in the US: 13,080
What they do, according to O*NET: Use chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other sciences to study the principles underlying the processing and deterioration of foods; analyze food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, and protein; discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science knowledge to determine best ways to process, package, preserve, store, and distribute food.
19. Epidemiologists had a median annual salary of $74,560.
Total number of employees in the US: 7,500
What they do, according to O*NET: Investigate and describe the determinants and distribution of disease, disability, or health outcomes. May develop the means for prevention and control; oversee public health programs, including statistical analysis, health care planning, surveillance systems, and public health improvement.
18. Chemists had a median annual salary of $79,300.
Total number of employees in the US: 82,940
What they do, according to O*NET: Conduct qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses or experiments in laboratories for quality or process control, or to develop new products or knowledge.
17. Life scientists (all other) had a median annual salary of $82,000.
Total number of employees in the US: 6,540
What they do, according to O*NET: This job category includes botanists, ecologists, geneticists, neuroscientists, immunologists, and microbiologists.
16. Hydrologists had a median annual salary of $84,040.
Total number of employees in the US: 6,170
What they do, according to O*NET: Research the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters; and study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the earth, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere.
15. Nuclear technicians had a median annual salary of $84,190.
Total number of employees in the US: 6,160
What they do, according to O*NET: Assist nuclear physicists, nuclear engineers, or other scientists in laboratory, power generation, or electricity production activities.
14. Microbiologists had a median annual salary of $84,400.
Total number of employees in the US: 19,710
What they do, according to O*NET: Investigate the growth, structure, development, and other characteristics of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Includes medical microbiologists who study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms.
13. Biological scientists (all other) had a median annual salary of $85,290.
Total number of employees in the US: 41,680
What they do, according to O*NET: This job category includes bioinformatics scientists, molecular and cellular biologists, and geneticists.
12. Medical scientists (except epidemiologists) had a median annual salary of $91,510.
Total number of employees in the US: 126,110
What they do, according to O*NET: Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health. Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities. Includes physicians, dentists, public health specialists, pharmacologists, and medical pathologists who primarily conduct research.
11. Statisticians had a median annual salary of $92,270.
Total number of employees in the US: 38,860
What they do, according to O*NET: Develop or apply mathematical or statistical theory and methods to collect, organize, interpret, and summarize numerical data to provide usable information. May specialize in fields such as bio-statistics, agricultural statistics, business statistics, or economic statistics. Includes mathematical and survey statisticians.
10. Geoscientists (except hydrologists and geographers) had a median annual salary of $93,580.
Total number of employees in the US: 27,890
What they do, according to O*NET: Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth. May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems. May study the Earth’s internal composition, atmospheres, oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Includes mineralogists, crystallographers, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.
9. Biochemists and biophysicists had a median annual salary of $94,270.
Total number of employees in the US: 32,010
What they do, according to O*NET: Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena. May conduct research to further the understanding of the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. May determine the effects of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms.
8. Materials scientists had a median annual salary of $99,460.
Total number of employees in the US: 6,930
What they do, according to O*NET: Research and study the structures and chemical properties of various natural and synthetic or composite materials, including metals, alloys, rubber, ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, and glass. Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications. Includes glass scientists, ceramic scientists, metallurgical scientists, and polymer scientists.
7. Atmospheric and space scientists had a median annual salary of $99,740.
Total number of employees in the US: 10,210
What they do, according to O*NET: Investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses. Includes weather analysts and forecasters whose functions require the detailed knowledge of meteorology.
6. Physical scientists (all other) had a median annual salary of $107,210.
Total number of employees in the US: 19,050
What they do, according to O*NET: This job category includes geologists, paleontologists, chemists, physicists, and astronomers.
5. Mathematicians had a median annual salary of $110,860.
Total number of employees in the US: 2,460
What they do, according to O*NET: Conduct research in fundamental mathematics or in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields. Solve problems in various fields using mathematical methods.
4. Astronomers had a median annual salary of $119,730.
Total number of employees in the US: 1,910
What they do, according to O*NET: Observe, research, and interpret astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge or apply such information to practical problems.
3. Computer and information research scientists had a median annual salary of $126,830.
Total number of employees in the US: 30,220
What they do, according to O*NET: Conduct research into fundamental computer and information science as theorists, designers, or inventors. Develop solutions to problems in the field of computer hardware and software.
2. Physicists had a median annual salary of $129,850.
Total number of employees in the US: 16,160
What they do, according to O*NET: Conduct research into physical phenomena, develop theories on the basis of observation and experiments, and devise methods to apply physical laws and theories.
1. Natural-sciences managers had a median annual salary of $137,940.
Total number of employees in the US: 75,870
What they do, according to O*NET: Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields.
Method and data source
Depending on their specialization, scientists can earn a lot of money.
Using data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program, which provides an annual guide to median pay in the United States, we looked at the pay of different science or science-related jobs. We were especially interested in looking at those that are the highest-paying.
Physicists, computer scientists, and astronomers were among the most lucrative careers, earning six-figure salaries.
The above slides are the 25 highest-paying jobs from our list of science and science-related jobs, such as mathematicians, ranked in order of median annual salary. We also included the number of people employed as of May 2020 from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program. We also added their job descriptions, according to the Department of Labor’s O*NET occupational database.
37. Non-restaurant food servers earn a median of $25,020 a year, and there are 19,320 employed in the hotel industry.
36. Laundry and dry-cleaning workers earn a median of $25,100 a year, and 28,960 are employed in the hotel industry.
35. Maids and housekeeping cleaners earn a median of $25,320 a year, and there are 355,930 employed in the hotel industry.
34. Desk clerks earn a median of $25,370 a year, and 201,620 are employed in the hotel industry.
33. Dining room and cafeteria attendants, as well as bartender helpers, earn a median of $25,530, and 42,740 are employed in the hotel industry.
32. Passenger vehicle drivers earn a median of $25,760 a year and 6,610 are employed in the hotel industry.
31. Fast food and counter workers earn a median of $25,870, and there are 16,290 employed in the hotel industry.
30. Waiters and waitresses earn a median of $26,550 a year, and 108,350 are employed in the hotel industry.
29. Restaurant hosts and hostesses earn a median of $26,710 a year, and 13,670 are employed in the hotel industry.
28. Bartenders earn a median of $26,890 a year, and 31,820 are employed in the hotel industry.
27. Baggage porters and bellhops earn a median of $27,060 a year, and 15,950 are employed in the hotel industry.
26. Dishwashers earn a median of $27,080 a year, and 21,910 are employed in the hotel industry.
25. Food preparation workers earn a median of $28,220 a year, and 9,750 are employed in the hotel industry.
24. Janitors and cleaners (except maids) earn a median of $29,320 a year, and 34,390 are employed in the hotel industry.
23. Landscaping and groundskeeping workers earn a median of $29,580 a year, and 8,340 are employed in the hotel industry.
22. Security guards earn a median of $31,600 a year, and 22,010 are employed in the hotel industry.
21. Restaurant cooks earn a median of $31,720 a year, and 59,580 are employed in the hotel industry.
20. Concierges earn a median of $31,960 a year, and 8,510 are employed in the hotel industry.
19. Office clerks earn a median of $32,550 a year, and 6,020 are employed in the hotel industry.
18. Maintenance and repair workers earn a median of $33,870 a year, and 70,190 are employed in the hotel industry.
17. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks earn a median of $35,530 a year, and 15,730 are employed in the hotel industry.
16. First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers earn a median of $37,390 a year, and 27,750 are employed in the hotel industry.
15. Secretaries and administrative assistants earn a median salary of $39,040, and 6,120 are employed in the hotel industry.
14. First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers earn a median of $40,850 a year, and 21,720 are employed in the hotel industry.
13. First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers earn a median of $44,190 a year, and 28,150 are employed in the hotel industry.
12. Meeting, convention, and event planners earn a median of $48,350 a year, and 6,320 are employed in the hotel industry.
11. Sales representatives of services earn a median of $53,070, and 17,260 are employed in the hotel industry.
10. Lodging managers earn a median of $55,730 a year, and 27,040 are employed in the hotel industry.
9. Human resources specialists earn a median of $56,760 a year, and 3,440 are employed in the hotel industry.
8. Chefs and head cooks earn a median of $60,020 a year, and 10,870 are employed in the hotel industry.
7. First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers earn a median of $61,130 a year, and 6,270 are employed in the hotel industry.
6. Accountants and auditors earn a median of $62,120 a year, and 6,800 are employed in the hotel industry.
5. Food service managers earn a median of $67,170 a year, and 6,020 are employed in the hotel industry.
4. General and operations managers earn a median of $79,330 a year, and 12,870 are employed in the hotel industry.
3. Administrative services and facilities managers earn a median of $86,880 a year, and 2,960 are employed in the hotel industry.
2. Sales managers earn a median of $94,000 a year, and 4,620 are employed in the hotel industry.
1. Financial managers earn a median of $112,520 a year, and 3,030 are employed in the hotel industry.
Method and data source
Although the leisure and hospitality industry is slowly recovering as the US continues to reopen and more people start to travel again, employment projections show the hotel industry could still end 2021 with fewer jobs than before the pandemic.
According to the American Hotel & Lodging Association, hotels are projected to see a loss of 478,245 jobs in 2021 relative to 2019 employment. The American Hotel & Lodging Association notes that the projections are based on just hotel property jobs, and don’t include losses in related businesses.
Hotels employ a wide variety of workers, and salaries range from well below the US median wage to very high paying.
Hotel jobs tend to be lower paying than average. The median annual wage for an employee in the traveler accommodation industry was just $28,320, below the overall median wage of $41,950, in 2020 (the most recent data). Housekeepers, for example, earned just $25,320 per year in 2020.
The above slides are employment and wages for 37 select occupations in the hotel industry, ranked from lowest to highest wage. Both the number of people in that job and median annual pay are May 2020 figures from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program.
Using that data, we found the average annual salaries, as reported by the BLS, for 19 medical and protective-service roles where saving lives is a part of the job. We ranked the above from lowest to highest average annual salaries and included employment figures as of May 2020, the most recent period for which data is available.
Lifeguards tend to make a relatively low annual salary, while firefighters and police officers are well compensated on average. Surgeons are very highly paid.
Various economic indicators are surpassing their pre-pandemic highs as stimulus and reopening drive the country toward a full recovery.
US wages are the latest to rebound.
Salaries and hourly wages finally leaped above their February 2020 peak in March 2021, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Employee payment across the country rose to a seasonally adjusted annual rate of $9.78 trillion from $9.67 trillion, marking a new record high and an eleventh consecutive climb.
By comparison, it took more than twice as long for wages to fully rebound from their decline during the Great Recession.
The sharp increase seen two months ago was powered by stronger wage growth for workers in food preparation and serving, cleaning, and individual care, a group hit hard by lockdowns. Those Americans have enjoyed a massive jump in wages from January to March as vaccines started to be rolled out and service jobs bounced back. Wage growth for managers, professionals, technicians, and office and administration workers remain below their pre-pandemic rates, albeit only slightly so.
The bounceback in low-wage income growth marks a positive development amid the largely uneven recovery. The white unemployment rate still sits significantly lower than that for Black and Asian Americans. And while wages are rebounding across racial and gender lines, the pandemic only exacerbated long-lasting inequalities.
More broadly, the labor market seemed to turn a corner in March. Payroll growth shot higher as stimulus and the easing of lockdown measures juiced the economic recovery. Gains were also strongest among leisure and hospitality businesses, some of the firms hit hardest by the virus and its fallout.
The labor market’s rebound is expected to have accelerated last month. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is set to publish April payroll growth data on Friday and reveal how reopening and warmer weather benefitted hiring. The median estimate from economists surveyed by Bloomberg calls for nearly 1 million nonfarm payroll additions. They also expect the unemployment rate to drop to 5.8% from 6%.
Economists got their first preview of April job creation Wednesday morning. The country’s private sector added 742,000 payrolls in April, according to ADP’s monthly employment report. That missed the median estimate of 873,000 private payrolls but still marked a fourth straight monthly gain.
“Service providers have the most to gain as the economy reopens, recovers, and resumes normal activities and are leading job growth in April,” Nela Richardson, chief economist at ADP, said.
[Editor’s note: This article has been updated to remove the Federal Reserve phrase classifying workers in food preparation and serving, cleaning, and individual care as “low-skill workers,” a term increasingly seen as problematic.]
Although teachers have the incredibly important job of educating the next generation of Americans, their earnings vary widely across the country.
Nationwide, the average public school teacher salary for the 2019-2020 school year was $63,645, according to data from the Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics. While the nominal teacher salary has increased over the last couple decades, when adjusted for inflation, average salary is about 0.2% higher than the $63,523 average in the 1999-2000 school year using 2019-2020 dollars.
The above slides show how much public school teachers made during the 2019-2020 school year (the most recent year for which data is available in each state) according to the NCES, as well as the total amount spent per public-school student during the 2018 fiscal year in each state, according to the Census Bureau.
The median annual wage across all public school occupations was $49,680. The salaries for occupations with at least 25,000 employed within the sector range from $25,510 for fast food and counter workers to $99,690 for education administrators.
Teacher salaries also vary between grade levels. For instance, high school teachers earn a median wage of $63,400 a year, while middle school teachers earn a median wage of $61,780.
For our analysis, we looked at all the occupations with at least 25,000 employees in the local-government-owned school sector in May 2020. We then ranked these occupations from lowest to highest wage. In addition to the median annual pay, the above slides also include the number of people in that job within this industry.