Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine works very well against the Delta variant – but only after 2 doses

a 13 year old puts his fist in the air, claiming victory after a nurse gave him a COVID-19 shot
A 13-year-old celebrates after being inoculated on May 13.

  • A UK study suggests two-dose Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines work well against Delta infections.
  • After one shot, the vaccines were only 30% to 36% effective against symptomatic Delta infections.
  • But with two shots, Pfizer’s and AstraZeneca’s vaccines were 88% and 67% effective, respectively.
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A study of more than 19,000 teens and adults across the UK provides some of the first compelling, peer-reviewed, and large-scale evidence that you need both doses of two-dose vaccines to get good protection from the Delta variant.

The findings from Public Health England suggest that vaccine protection against Delta is very strong when people get both shots.

But the research, published in The New England Journal of Medicine on Wednesday, showed that just one dose of either Pfizer’s or AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine protected people from symptomatic infections only about one-third of the time.

“It’s clear how important the second dose is to secure the strongest possible protection against COVID-19 and its variants,” Matt Hancock, the UK’s secretary of state for health and social care, said when an unreviewed preprint of the study was released in May.

When patients were fully vaccinated, with two shots both given at least two weeks to take effect, Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine became about 88% effective against symptomatic COVID-19 from the Delta variant, while AstraZeneca’s vaccine was 67% effective against it.

That is almost as good as those vaccines performed in clinical trials before the new variant was detected, but it does suggest that breakthrough infections in vaccinated people will become slightly more common now that Delta is here.

One shot was only about 30% effective against COVID-19 symptoms with Delta

man staring at the camera, about to get COVID-19 shot administered by nurse
A man gets his second vaccine dose in Bridgeport, Connecticut, on April 20.

This study was possible because the UK maintains a national vaccination register and the proportion of positive COVID-19 cases that are sequenced in the UK is far higher than in the US (about 60% as of May).

In their comparison of a patient’s vaccination status, their COVID-19 test results, and variant sequencing to determine whether their infection was caused by the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant or Delta, researchers were able to determine how well the Delta variant evaded vaccine protection.

With only one shot on board, Pfizer’s vaccine was just 36% effective against symptomatic Delta cases, while AstraZeneca’s vaccine was 30% effective, the researchers found.

Other research suggests that the Delta variant is more contagious, and that may be, in part, because people who are infected tend to shed more virus while they are sick.

The researchers did not estimate vaccine effectiveness for severe disease and death in this study, but other research (and hospital data) suggests that COVID-19 vaccines are still extremely good at keeping people alive and out of hospital beds.

Vaccinated people are starting to report getting sick more often now that Delta is around, but their infections are generally milder, with common symptoms including headaches, runny noses, congestion, and sore throats.

Getting two shots of a vaccine gives the body a chance to develop a more robust immune response to COVID-19, which ramps up its attack on the virus.

“That’s the reason why the second dose is much more reactive,” professor Akiko Iwasaki, who studies viruses at Yale, previously told Insider. “This is a sign that your immune system is working because you develop a much worse response the second time, based on these antibodies and T cells that are detecting the viral antigen and attacking your own cells.”

Even with Delta prevalent, all the usual pandemic protocols, including masking, distancing, and limiting exposure, still help.

“Even modest mask use combined with vaccination can really put the brakes on even the Delta variant,” Christopher Murray, the director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, previously told Insider.

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Heart inflammation investigated as possible rare COVID-19 vaccine side effect in teens and young people

Teenager received COVID-19 vaccine
A nurse gives a 13-year-old a shot of the vaccine at a vaccination clinic at Health First Medical Centre. On May 12, 2021, the CDC approved the use of the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine in 12 through 15-year-old adolescents.

  • A new study has raised the possibility of a heart condition being a very rare side effect of the Pfizer shot.
  • Seven US teen boys experienced chest pain within a few days of having their second COVID-19 vaccine.
  • Eligible teens are still being encouraged to be vaccinated, the CDC said.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

A new study, published on Friday, has sparked concerns that a heart condition could be a very rare side effect for teens and young adults receiving the second dose of COVID-19 vaccines.

Health authorities are investigating whether reports of heart inflammation in seven US teen boys across several states can be linked to the administration of a Pfizer shot, the Associated Press reported.

The study, published in the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, shows that the seven boys – aged between 14 and 19 – experienced chest pain within a few days of having their second coronavirus vaccine.

Heart imaging tests showed a type of inflammation of the heart muscle called myocarditis.

None of the teenagers were critically ill and all were sent home from the hospital after two to six days, Dr. Preeti Jaggi, who co-authored the report, told AP. It is currently believed that the inflammation was temporary, Jaggi said.

Read more: New guidance says businesses can require employees to get vaccinated and bar unvaccinated employees from returning

This study follows news from Israel that suggested there is a “probable link” between receiving the second dose of the Pfizer vaccine and the appearance of myocarditis, Israel’s health ministry said on Tuesday.

Out of more than 5 million people who got the vaccine, 275 people reported heart muscle inflammation, mainly young men, the health ministry said.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention last month recommended investigating the possibility of a link between myocarditis and mRNA vaccines, which include those from Pfizer and Moderna, Insider’s Sarah Al-Arshani reported

The rate of reported myocarditis cases after COVID-19 vaccinations, however, was not different from the baseline rate, which means there may not be a link between vaccination and the condition, Al-Arshani wrote.

Eligible teens are still being encouraged to be vaccinated due to a rising number of hospitalizations among young people, the CDC said.

The CDC has allowed the use of the Pfizer vaccine for people 12 years old and up.

In the UK, the nation’s medicines regulator has approved Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine for 12- to 15-year-olds.

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FDA to authorize the use of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine for those ages 12-15 as early as next week, The New York Times reports

pfizer vaccine
Vials of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19.

  • The FDA is reportedly set to OK the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine for 12- to 15-year-olds by next week.
  • Pfizer said in March that its vaccine was highly effective in a trial of over 2,000 adolescents.
  • Nearly 150 million Americans had gotten at least one dose of a vaccine as of May 3, CDC data showed.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

The Food and Drug Administration is set to authorize the use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for adolescents aged 12-15 years old as early as next week, The New York Times reported Monday.

Following FDA authorization, an advisory panel from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will review data and results from clinical trials to draft recommendations on the use of the vaccine for those 12-15 years old, according to The Times report.

Pfizer announced in late March that their vaccine was highly effective in a trial of more than 2,000 adolescents, and the vaccine was “well tolerated” among those ages 12 to 15. Pfizer said the side effects of the vaccine experienced by those ages 12-15 were similar to those ages 16 to 25.

The CDC opened up vaccine eligibility to people who were 16 years or older in April, and those who were 16- or 17-years-old were only allowed to receive Pfizer while those 18 and up are authorized to receive Moderna or Johnson & Johnson.

Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla said in a March statement the company shares the “urgency to expand the authorization of our vaccine to use in younger populations.” He said he hopes that the clinical trial data will prompt officials to start vaccinating the age group “before the start of the next school year.”

An FDA spokeswoman declined to comment to The Times on the agency’s timeline of authorizing the vaccine for adolescents.

“We can assure the public that we are working to review this request as quickly and transparently as possible,” the spokeswoman told The Times.

Nearly 150 million Americans have received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine as of May 3, according to data from the CDC, equating to roughly 44% of the US population.

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Pfizer is ramping up vaccine production and will meet its goal of 300 million doses two weeks early, its CEO said

covid-19 vaccine vial pfizer biontech
  • Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla said on Twitter his company is ramping up COVID-19 vaccine production.
  • Bourla said his company will deliver 220 million doses of the vaccine to the US by the end of May.
  • He said that the complete supply of 300 million would be delivered by the end of July.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Pfizer has increased its production of COVID-19 vaccines and will deliver remaining doses to the United States faster than expected, CEO Albert Bourla said on Twitter.

Bourla said his company will deliver 220 million doses of the vaccine by the end of May – 10% more than previously agreed on.

He said that the complete supply of 300 million would be delivered by the end of July, two weeks earlier than expected.

“In the fight against COVID-19, we’re in this together,” he wrote.

The announcement came after US officials recommended a pause on the use of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, citing reports of blood clots forming in people who have received the shot.

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I got the COVID-19 vaccine at a CVS, and it was so fast and efficient that it’s not hard to understand how the chain has already vaccinated 10 million Americans

CVS vaccine covid
  • Getting vaccinated for COVID-19 at CVS was wildly efficient and easy.
  • From signing up to checking in to the shot itself, the process was organized and concise.
  • The experience helped me to understand why CVS has already vaccinated over 10 million Americans.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

On Thursday morning, CVS announced an important milestone in the race to vaccinate Americans against the coronavirus: 10 million shots delivered, and capacity to administer up to 25 million shots per month.

Later that morning, I walked into a CVS on Staten Island and became one of the next 10 million.

The process of getting vaccinated at CVS was so friendly, so efficient, and so well organized that it helped me understand why the pharmacy chain is able to vaccinate so many folks so quickly.

Earlier this week, when vaccine appointment eligibility opened to anyone in New York 30 years of age and older, I went to the CVS scheduling tool, plugged in my information, and found a surprising number of open appointments for Staten Island locations.

CVS appointment confirmation

I scheduled an appointment for Thursday morning, and received a confirmation email soon after.

As someone who’s been trying, and failing, to buy a PlayStation 5 for months, it was a surprisingly glitch-free experience using the CVS scheduling tool. I was able to simply enter information, select a time, and confirm my selection.

On Thursday morning, before embarking on the lengthy drive from the middle of Brooklyn to the middle of Staten Island, I got a text message from CVS with a link to digitally check in when I arrived at the store:

CVS vaccine check in

An hour-plus later, I parked my car and digitally signed in. Having told CVS I was at the store, I turned off my car and walked inside.

Before I could even begin to be confused as to where I should go, I spotted a check-in desk.

Immediately to the right of the entryway doors, CVS employees had created a temporary check-in desk for vaccinations:

CVS check-in for COVID vaccinations
Don’t be fooled by the desk being empty – the employee who was working the desk didn’t want to be in the photo!

There was no line, and check-ins were being handled simply: With a highlighter on paper.

After I gave my name, I was instructed to proceed down the adjacent aisle where a handful of people were already lined up on socially-distanced squares marked on the ground.

As we waited, another CVS employee with a clipboard walked down the line, took IDs, and filled out each person’s coveted CDC vaccination card with information about their first shot – it’s the card that everyone takes selfies with, even though you probably shouldn’t.

By the time I’d received my card, I was moving to the next step of the process: Checking in for a second time with an employee behind a computer who confirmed my address.

At this point, I could see the full operation. Employees had essentially set up a flexible assembly line for vaccinating people, and it was moving rapidly.

CVS vaccination lobby, Staten Island
The endpoint of vaccination, behind the blue plastic curtain, with recently vaccinated patients waiting on the left.

From where I was, the next step was getting vaccinated, and then waiting the requisite 15 minutes just in case I had a reaction.

Employees had smartly used self checkout dividers to turn their pharmacy lobby into a socially distanced waiting room. “Endcap” products were displaced for seated patients who were able to sit directly next to each other due to the dividers.

CVS vaccination area, Staten Island, NY.

The shot itself was quick, and relatively painless, as expected.

The man who gave me the shot asked if I had any questions, and I blurted out a silly question that I already knew the answer to (“When will I be fully vaccinated?”), and he kindly answered something he’s assuredly answered a thousand times already (“You’ll receive the full benefits of the vaccination two weeks after your second shot.”).

The same employee who gave me my CDC vaccination card ushered me over to the seating area and asked how I was, so I enthusiastically said I was “feeling great.” The truth, of course, is I was feeling unbelievably happy and hopeful for the first time in what feels like forever. It’s been over a year, folks! There’s no getting that time back!

She handed me a 15 minute timer, and I took a seat.

CVS vaccine waiting
You can tell I haven’t been out that much for the past year because my hat is in disarray.

About halfway through my 15-minute wait, an employee came over to ask how I was feeling once again, and I marveled at how swift and efficient their process was. She relayed how happy it made her to help people get vaccinated, and said it makes the day go all the faster.

My appointment was scheduled for 10:45 a.m., and I was back in my car on the way out of the parking lot by 11:21 a.m. I may or may not have bought Easter candy at CVS before leaving, which assuredly added a minute or two.

All in, the process took a little over half an hour from start to finish, and everyone was a delight along the way. From what I saw, it makes perfect sense that CVS is rolling through so many vaccinations so quickly – they’re doing it very well.

Got a tip? Contact Insider senior correspondent Ben Gilbert via email (bgilbert@insider.com), or Twitter DM (@realbengilbert). We can keep sources anonymous. Use a non-work device to reach out. PR pitches by email only, please.

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Thousands of people who visited a COVID-19 vaccination site in California received the wrong dosage, report says

vaccine california oakland
A woman receives a vaccine at the Oakland Coliseum on February 16.

  • An estimated 4,300 people received less of the Pfizer vaccine than they should have, KTVU reported.
  • Too little of the vaccine was administered due to a problem with new syringes, the media outlet said.
  • California health officials have said patients will be informed “immediately” if they need a booster.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

Thousands of people who visited a mass vaccination site in Oakland, California, on March 1 received the wrong dosage of the Pfizer vaccine, according to KTVU.

An estimated 4,300 people were administered less than the recommended dose while getting a shot at the Oakland Coliseum, two unnamed medical workers told the media outlet.

The optimal vaccine dosage is 0.3-mL of Pfizer but thousands of people received around 0.2 mL, KTVU said.

Due to a problem with the syringes, too little of the COVID-19 vaccine was administered, the media outlet reported.

The mixup took place on Monday morning but was identified and resolved by 2 pm, state officials confirmed to KTVU.

Both agencies that run the mass vaccination site – the California Office of Emergency Services and the Federal Emergency Management Agency – were unaware of the issue until KTVU alerted them of it on Tuesday.

The State Department of Public Health, United States Health and Human Services (HHS), and Pfizer held emergency meetings on Tuesday to discuss the error, a California OES spokesperson told the media outlet.

Officials from the California Department of Health then visited the Oakland Coliseum out of “an abundance of caution,” a spokesperson said.

Ali Bay, deputy director of communications for the health department, told KTVU on Friday that nobody who was vaccinated on March 1 “has been harmed or would be harmed if we conclude they received a slightly smaller dose of the vaccine.”

Those vaccinated on that date are not being advised to seek out additional medical care but, Bay said, patients will be informed “immediately” should they need an emergency booster.

California’s health department is now working with the HHS, CDC, and Pfizer to “ensure that vaccine best practices and quality assurance are adhered to at this site,” Bay told KTVU.

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A congressional lawmaker tested positive for the coronavirus after getting second dose of Pfizer vaccine

Stephen Lynch
Rep. Stephen Lynch, D-Mass., questions Postmaster General Louis DeJoy during a House Oversight and Reform Committee hearing on the Postal Service on Capitol Hill, Monday, Aug. 24, 2020, in Washington.

  • After having received both doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, Rep. Stephen Lynch of Massachusetts tested positive for the coronavirus, his spokesperson told Business Insider. 
  • “While Mr. Lynch remains asymptomatic and feels fine, he will self-quarantine and will vote by proxy in Congress during the coming week,” his spokesperson said.
  • It typically takes a few weeks to develop immunity to the coronavirus after being vaccinated.
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

Rep. Stephen Lynch of Massachusetts tested positive for the coronavirus on Friday after having received two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, according to his spokesperson.

“U.S. Representative Stephen F. Lynch received a positive test result for COVID-19 after a staff member in the Congressman’s Boston office had tested positive earlier in the week,” Molly Rose Tarpey, Lynch’s communications director, said in a statement to Business Insider. 

“While Mr. Lynch remains asymptomatic and feels fine, he will self-quarantine and will vote by proxy in Congress during the coming week,” she said, adding, “Congressman Lynch had received the second dose of the Pfizer vaccine and subsequently received a negative COVID-19 test prior to attending President Biden’s Inauguration,” which took place January 20.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it can take up to a few weeks for the body to develop immunity to the coronavirus after vaccination.

“That means it’s possible a person could be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 just before or just after vaccination and still get sick,” the agency said. “This is because the vaccine has not had enough time to provide protection.”

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is two doses given 21 days apart. Pfizer said its vaccine is 95% effective at preventing COVID-19 seven days after the second shot is administered.

‘Dumb luck’

pfizer vaccine
A vial of the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine.

It’s possible to contract COVID-19 during the period between the first and second shot, too.

Another Massachusetts lawmaker, Lori Trahan, tested positive for the coronavirus this week after she had received her first vaccine dose. Trahan got her first shot last week, one of her spokeswomen told The Washington Post Saturday. 

COVID-19 vaccines contain tiny pieces of genetic material that teach your immune system how to fight off the coronavirus by developing virus-fighting antibodies. These bits of messenger RNA can’t get you sick with COVID-19, but it takes some time for them to do their job. The Pfizer vaccine, for instance, is only 52% effective at preventing COVID-19 after the first dose.

That’s why it’s critical people continue to wear masks during the stretch of time between doses, and in the weeks following their second dose.

Joshua Mugele
Josh Mugele.

One doctor who got the coronavirus after having received the first dose of the vaccine, Josh Mugele, said his infection wasn’t a sign the vaccine didn’t work.

“This was just dumb luck,” Mugele previously told Insider. “I happened to be exposed within a few days of getting the vaccine, but this still is the best tool we have for fighting the virus.”

As an emergency-room doctor, Mugele also had a higher risk of infection than many Americans, especially because his hospital was filling up with coronavirus patients.

More than 26 million people in the US have contracted the coronavirus, according to the latest data compiled by Johns Hopkins University; more than 440,000 Americans have died.

Aria Bendix, Andrea Michelson, and Anna Medaris Miller contributed reporting to this story.

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How to sign up for a COVID-19 vaccine appointment

Vaccine

As of January 22, 17 million people have been vaccinated against COVID-19 in the United States, with close to 38 million doses distributed across the country, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 

The first wave of vaccinations was fairly simple and limited to frontline healthcare workers.

But now the rollout is expanding, and the remaining 310 million Americans awaiting their turn may wonder when they can get that all-important first dose. 

Read more: US states where it’s easiest, and most difficult, to get a coronavirus shot

Here is a guide to finding your state’s guidelines and signing up for the COVID-19 vaccine. 

Check with your state’s Department of Health website for registration sites and eligibility status 

Not only does each state have different guidelines for distributing the vaccine, it varies from city to city and county to county, too. So it’s important to find your particular state’s rules. 

Most cities and counties have COVID-19 vaccine information on the website for the local department of health. This website can give you information about what documents to bring to get vaccinated and where you can get vaccinated. 

Some cities and counties will have official forms patients can fill out to see if you are eligible and indicate interest in getting the vaccine. Others, like New York City, allow you to make online appointments to get vaccinated at different vaccination locations. 

Some cities and counties, such as Los Angeles and New Orleans, will have a list of hospitals and vaccination facilities in the area where patients can make an appointment. 

Some states have COVID-19 vaccine hotlines to help you register 

States may have an additional COVID-19 hotline to call with questions about the vaccine, like who is eligible, where to sign up, and where to get your shots.

Mississippi allows residents to schedule their vaccination appointments over the phone by calling (877) 978-6453. 

Read More: What the COVID-19 vaccine could mean for the future of travel

Some states, including Maryland and Massachusetts, allow residents to sign up for text notifications about the vaccine to ping them when different priority groups start getting vaccinated. 

If you are eligible, look for medical non-profits in the area which have sign up sheets for the vaccine 

If you determined you are eligible using your state’s guidelines, your local health department website may direct you to a non-profit medical initiative like The Black Doctors Consortium in Philadelphia and Community of Hope in Washington D.C. to make an appointment to get vaccinated

You can find these non-profits by checking the list of COVID-19 vaccination sites on your local department of health’s website. 

It’s important to note these guidelines are rapidly changing as more doses of the vaccine are distributed, so remember to continue checking with your local health authorities for updates. 

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I felt totally fine after my first COVID-19 shot, but the second dose was rough. Here’s a timeline of my side effects and why I still think you should get the shot.

Joy Henningsen
Joy Henningsen receiving the second dose of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine on January 7.

  • Dr. Joy Henningsen is a diagnostic radiologist at the Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a clinical assistant professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. 
  • She received the first dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine on December 17 and the second dose on January 7 at the Birmingham VA Medical Center. 
  • Although she experienced no side effects following the first shot, about six hours after the second dose Henningsen says she began to feel muscle aches and injection site soreness.
  • She woke up during the night at the 12-hour mark with a fever and chills, and in the morning had a dull headache that persisted throughout the day. By 48 hours after the shot, however, Henningsen says she “felt essentially back to normal.”
  • Henningsen says although these temporary side effects are uncomfortable, they won’t happen to everyone and shouldn’t be a deterrent to receiving the vaccine.
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

I was extremely fortunate to receive the initial dose of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine on December 17, the first week it was offered in the United States outside of a clinical trial. My hospital received doses in the first national shipment and every healthcare worker at my hospital who expressed interest via survey received the vaccine, including me. 

I barely felt the first shot, aside from very subtle arm soreness a day or so later. 

I also signed up to log my symptoms on the CDC’s V-Safe online symptom tracker tool. My reporting was wholly uneventful; thankfully, as expected, I had no symptoms that impacted my life or activities in any way. 

I wondered if I’d be as lucky after the second dose, when more people have reported uncomfortable side effects.

Read more: 16 states recorded their highest number of COVID-19 hospitalizations last week as new cases reach an all-time high

Before I knew how my body would react to the second dose, I prepared myself for the possibility of feeling lousy for a day or two afterward.

Joy Henningsen
Henningsen prepared washcloths, a thermometer, and over the counter pain medications for after the shot.

If it were an option, I would have scheduled the day off work after the second vaccination to be safe. For me that wasn’t possible, so I scheduled a grocery delivery before my shot and purchased the same items I’d buy if I had a cold or the flu (water, soup, crackers, etc.) I also made sure my pets were stocked up with plenty of food and water. 

In addition to comfort food and hydrating liquids, I cobbled together a “vaccine valise” of other supplies to have on hand.

This included an under-tongue thermometer to monitor my temperature and over-the-counter fever reducers. For the whiplash back and forth between fever and chills that some people have reported, I set out washcloths to be used as cold compresses. I also put a weighted blanket and a down comforter near my bed.

I received my vaccine in the afternoon on January 7. Here’s my hour by hour reaction.

The second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine that Henningsen received.
The second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine that Henningsen received.

3 p.m. (Hour zero): Received the second dose of the Pfizer vaccine, no immediate reaction.

9 p.m. (6-hour mark): I felt fine until the six-hour mark, when I began to feel a sense of malaise (the medical word for that vague feeling when you know something isn’t quite right at the beginning of feeling sick). Mild muscle aches soon followed, as well as injection site soreness that felt similar to how a tetanus shot feels – that is, a little worse than a flu shot.

January 8 – day one after the shot

3 a.m. (12-hour mark): I woke up with a 102-degree fever and chills, general insomnia. 

5 a.m. (14-hour mark): There was some improvement to the fever and chills, but when I woke up the muscle aches persisted, and I had a dull headache similar to what I’d feel if I skipped my daily coffee. 

11 a.m. (20-hour mark): I still had a dull headache, and my fever and chills returned and persisted throughout the day, along with exhaustion and an overall “blah” feeling.

11 p.m. (32-hour mark): I was still experiencing a headache, fever, and chills when I went to bed at 11 p.m.

January 9 – day two after the shot

I woke up sweaty, likely from chills and minor night sweats. I got on the scale and saw I’d lost four pounds since I weighed myself the morning of the shot on January 7. Some of that was from being dehydrated; the rest may have been secondary to my body battling what it thought was COVID-19.

3 p.m. (48-hour mark): I felt essentially back to normal.

January 10 – day three after the shot

I felt so much better (almost normal) all day yesterday. I worked out in the morning, and most of the weight came right back when I upped my water intake.

Overall, of my symptoms were mild and a very small price to pay for protection against COVID-19. I believe temporary discomfort should not be a deterrent to receiving the vaccine, and I know these symptoms are a sign of a robust immune system and that my body is priming itself to fight COVID-19 – exactly what it is supposed to do.

Read more: A group backed by huge employers like Walmart, Lowe’s, and Microsoft is working on a new initiative to lower healthcare costs

It’s important we’re prepared for the possibility of these side effects. 

Joy Henningsen
Henningsen with her vaccine form.

The Pfizer vaccine was vetted by the US Food and Drug Administration which determined that it was safe to be given to people over 16. Millions of Americans need to be prepared for the authorized COVID-19 vaccines’ potential side effects such as fatigue, headache, muscle pains, fever, and chills that are more common with the second dose. For the majority of recipients, these potential effects may be an uncomfortable, but not threatening, part of this vaccine. 

According to Dr. Anthony Fauci’s latest projections, we need approximately 90% of Americans to be immunized to achieve herd immunity in order to resume normal life. I believe it’s our civic responsibility to be vaccinated according to the recommended dose regimen to end the pandemic. We all benefit.  

It’s smart to prepare yourself for the possibility that dose two of the authorized COVID-19 vaccines may be slightly more challenging. Still, having seen the destruction SARS-CoV-2 can wreak upon the body, I can tell you I’d rather have a night of feeling lousy on the couch watching Netflix any day over serious COVID-19. 

An earlier version of this article was published on Business Insider January 8, 2020.

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The FDA urges healthcare providers not to mix and match vaccines, halve doses, or extend time between shots

elderly woman vaccine
A medical worker gives an elderly woman an influenza vaccine in Zoetermeer, Netherlands.

  • As the coronavirus vaccine rollout stalls in the US, some public health and scientific leaders are suggesting altering the shots’ administration in order to protect more people faster. 
  • But the FDA warned healthcare providers not to halve doses, mix and match shots, or widen the window between the doses’ delivery. 
  • Until we know how protective a single shot is and how long that protection might last, “making such changes that are not supported by adequate scientific evidence may ultimately be counterproductive to public health,” the agency said. 
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

By the morning of January 4, only 2.8 million Americans had received their first dose of the coronavirus vaccine, despite the Trump administration’s goal of 20 million vaccinated in 2020. Meanwhile, an American dies of COVID-19 every 33 seconds

The dire situation has led some healthcare leaders to consider bending the vaccine administration protocol in order to, in theory, protect more people quicker. 

But on Monday, the US Food and Drug Administration tried to quash such attempts in the US, issuing a statement urging healthcare providers to administer coronavirus vaccines as they’ve been studied – that is, in two complete doses, made by the same company, and given three weeks apart for the Pfizer vaccine or four weeks apart for Moderna’s. 

The chief of Operation Warp Speed mulled giving out half doses, and the UK has discussed mixing vaccines

Moncef Slaoui, chief of Operation Warp Speed, said on Sunday that officials may give out half doses of Moderna’s COVID-19 shot in order to double the number of people immunized. 

There have also been contested discussions in the UK about mixing vaccines – that is, giving someone a first dose of the Pfizer vaccine and a second dose of Moderna’s, or vice versa, depending on availability. And, the UK’s health service has widened the window between recommended doses in an effort to maximize the number of people with some protection. 

In its statement, the FDA said whether such tweaks work are “reasonable questions to consider and evaluate in clinical trials.” 

“However, at this time, suggesting changes to the FDA-authorized dosing or schedules of these vaccines is premature and not rooted solidly in the available evidence. Without appropriate data supporting such changes in vaccine administration, we run a significant risk of placing public health at risk, undermining the historic vaccination efforts to protect the population from COVID-19.” 

The Infectious Diseases Society of America concurred, issuing a statement Tuesday in support of FDA’s stance. 

Changes to the vaccination schedule “carry the risk of both undermining the effectiveness of vaccines and eroding the public trust necessary for successful vaccine uptake,” it says. “As always, our approach against this pandemic must be founded in science, leadership, funding, collaboration and cooperation.” 

We don’t know for sure how protective a single dose is or how long protection from it lasts 

Some scientists have looked at the evidence and concluded that a single dose should provide some protection for at least a month beginning two weeks after vaccination.

However, experts say it would be a mistake to hope for full protection after one shot, when the vaccines currently available globally (from Pfizer, Moderna, and AstraZeneca) are all designed to be given in two doses.

The FDA said we can’t know much about how long a single dose is protective, or how strong that protection might be, since those questions weren’t studied and their answers may be related.

Until we better understand those questions, dolling out single or meager doses “is concerning,” the FDA said. 

“If people do not truly know how protective a vaccine is, there is the potential for harm because they may assume that they are fully protected when they are not, and accordingly, alter their behavior to take unnecessary risks.” 

The agency acknowledged that suggested tweaks to the vaccines’ delivery are well-intentioned, but said, “making such changes that are not supported by adequate scientific evidence may ultimately be counterproductive to public health.” 

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