How much protection you get from one dose of the Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Moderna vaccines, according to the best available data

coronavirus vaccine eu
Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine.

  • Millions of people worldwide have had one shot of two-dose COVID-19 vaccines.
  • Pfizer and Moderna’s vaccines are likely 80% effective against symptomatic COVID-19 after one dose.
  • A single AstraZeneca shot is probably at least 70% effective at preventing symptomatic COVID-19.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

More than 179 million Americans and more than 44 million Britons have received their first dose of a two-shot COVID-19 vaccine.

The US has authorized vaccines from Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech, while the UK has authorized Pfizer’s shot as well as one made by AstraZeneca and Oxford University. Both countries have authorized Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine, which is a single dose.

The UK is delaying the second dose of the vaccines for up to 12 weeks for most people to prioritize giving people their first shot because of an initial shortage of vaccines. In the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended giving second doses of Pfizer’s vaccine 21 days after the first, and 28 days after the first for Moderna, with an interval of up to six weeks in “unavoidable” situations.

The data for how well the vaccines work after one dose isn’t clear cut – it depends on what you’re measuring, and when you’re measuring it. Stephen Evans, a professor of medical statistics at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and a former drug-safety committee member at the European Medicines Agency, helped Insider break down the data.

Evans said the Food and Drug Administration presentation of the data from late-stage trials of each vaccine was generally the best data available. This is how much protection one shot of each vaccine gives you, based on that data.


Pfizer-BioNTech: at least 80%

Pfizer’s shot was 52.4% effective at protecting against COVID-19 with symptoms between the first and second dose, according to the FDA documents. But the 52.4% figure includes the 11 days before protection kicks in after the first dose, so the real percentage could well be higher.

The true value lies between 29.5% and 84.5%, according to the FDA documents. There was a wide range because not many people caught COVID-19 in the trial during this time period.

Professor Stephen Evans
Professor Stephen Evans.

Pfizer’s shot was 100% effective at protecting against hospitalization and death. This was based on a small number though – only four people got severe COVID-19 in the trial after receiving placebo rather than the vaccine.

Evans said there was “pretty clear evidence” that you get at least 80% protection – and “probably” better than 90% – for Pfizer’s vaccine against COVID-19 with symptoms after a single dose. He said you couldn’t be absolutely sure what happens after 21 days because it hadn’t been fully tested.

Evans said this was based on his overall reading of the trial data used by the FDA in their briefing document before authorization.

Moderna: at least 80%

Moderna’s vaccine was 69.5% effective at preventing COVID-19 with symptoms between the first and second dose, with a true value between 43.5% and 84.5%. There was a fairly wide range because the number of people that caught COVID-19 in the trial during this time period was low.

The 69.5% figure includes the 13 days before protection starts, so the real percentage could be higher.

There were a small number of people in Moderna’s trial – about 7% – that didn’t get their second dose for unknown reasons. In this group, the shot was 50.8% effective at preventing COVID-19 with symptoms for up to 14 days after the first dose and 92.1% effective after 14 days.

It is unclear how well one shot of the vaccine protects against hospitalization and death because not many people got severe COVID-19 – two in the vaccine group and four in placebo.

Evans said that you get at least 80% protection – and probably better than 90% – for Moderna’s vaccine against COVID-19 with symptoms after a single dose for 28 days. After 28 days it was unclear because it hadn’t been tested. Again, this was based on his overall reading of the FDA data, he said.

AstraZeneca: more than 70%

Evans said it was harder to ascertain a figure for AstraZeneca’s vaccine because late-stage trials used differing study designs, and a large US study was ongoing. The FDA also has not yet presented the data for the shot in the same way it has done for other vaccines.

A single dose of AstraZeneca’s shot was 76% effective at protecting against COVID-19 with symptoms for at least 90 days, according to late-stage-trial data published in The Lancet on February 19. The study authors also reported that one dose provided 100% protection against hospitalization, but the numbers were small.

Based on his reading of existing studies, Evans said the single-dose efficacy for AstraZeneca’s vaccine was probably at least 70% against COVID-19 with symptoms for the first 90 days. After this time period, it’s unclear, he said.

Johnson & Johnson: 66%

J&J looked at protection against moderate to severe COVID-19 in trials, rather than symptomatic COVID-19, like Pfizer, Moderna, and AstraZeneca.

Protection kicked in at 14 days and was 66.1% effective at 28 days. The vaccine’s efficacy varied depending on the country it was used in – it was 72% effective in the US but 64% and 68% effective in South Africa and Brazil, respectively. These countries both have coronavirus variants circulating that could partially evade antibodies.

What percentage efficacy means

Percentage efficacy for vaccines refers to the proportion of people that get full protection after a vaccine. With 80% efficacy, 80% of people have full protection, and 20% don’t.

For those who get full protection the first time around, the second shot improves the quality of the immune response and its durability.

For the people who don’t get full protection with the first shot, some will get full protection after the second dose. Some people won’t ever get full protection from a vaccine because their immune system doesn’t respond at all.

The latest real-world data: One shot significantly reduces infections and transmission

  • A UK study found Pfizer or AstraZeneca’s vaccine cut COVID-19 infections with symptoms by 72% after one dose, and protection probably held up for 10 weeks. Protection from Pfizer’s vaccine rose to 90% after two doses. The study hasn’t been peer-reviewed.
  • A US study of essential workers found that a single dose of Pfizer of Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccines were 80% effective against all coronavirus infections from 14 days.
  • A Scottish study found that a single dose of Pfizer’s vaccine was 91% effective against hospitalization at 28 to 34 days following vaccination. One dose of AstraZeneca’s vaccine was 88% effective against hospital admissions after the same time period.
  • A UK study found that a single dose of either Pfizer or AstraZeneca’s vaccine cut spread of symptomatic COVID-19 within a household by up to 50%.
  • A South Korean study found one dose of Pfizer’s vaccine was 89.7% effective at preventing COVID-19 in South Koreans aged over 60, at least two weeks after vaccination. AstraZeneca’s vaccine was 86% effective at preventing COVID-19 after one dose. The severity of illness that the shots protected against was unclear – generally they’re more effective at preventing COVID-19 infections that caused hospitalization or death.
  • An English study found that a single dose of either Pfizer or AstraZeneca’s vaccine was about 80% effective at preventing hospitalization in people over 70-years-old. Protection lasted for at least 6 weeks, including against the Alpha variant first identified in the UK.
  • An Israel study showed that Pfizer’s vaccine was 54% effective against symptomatic COVID-19, from 13 days to 24 days after vaccination, a figure comparable to the late stage trial data presented to the FDA.
  • A UK study estimated that a single dose of either Pfizer or AstraZeneca’s vaccine was between 56% and 62% effective at preventing COVID-19 infection caused by the Alpha variant in people over 75 years-old, four to seven weeks after the first dose. The severity of illness that the shots protected against was unclear, but probably included asymptomatic infections.
  • A UK study estimated that one dose of Pfizer vaccine was 79.3% effective at reducing the risk of hospitalization from COVID-19 in people aged over 80. A single shot of AstraZeneca’s was 80.4% effective, the researchers said.

Newest data suggests second shot provides better protection against variants

Real-word data from the UK posted May 23 by Public Health England showed that Pfizer’s and AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccines worked better against the variants when two doses were given rather than just one. Both vaccines were 30% effective against COVID-19 with symptoms caused by the Delta variant, first identified in India, three weeks after the first dose.

This was boosted to between 60% and 88% effectiveness two weeks after the second dose. The two vaccines were 50% effective against COVID-19 with symptoms against the variant first found in the UK, Alpha, three weeks after the first dose. This increased to between 66% and 93% two weeks after the second dose.

Dr. Anthony Fauci, President Joe Biden’s chief medical advisor, said on June 8 that getting two doses of COVID-19 vaccines would stop the Delta variant from spreading across the US. In the UK, Professor Deborah Dunn-Walters, chair of the British Society for Immunology COVID-19 Taskforce, said in a statement on June 4 that two doses of Pfizer’s vaccine were “critical for protection” against emerging strains of the virus.

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One dose of Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccine was highly effective at preventing coronavirus in older people, real-world data from South Korea suggests

Worshippers wearing face masks have their temperature taken at a buddhist temple in Seoul as south korea reopens during the coronavirus pandemic
Worshippers wearing face masks have their temperature taken as they attend a prayer ceremony entitled ‘overcoming and healing the COVID-19 coronavirus’, while marking Buddha’s birthday at the Jo gye Buddhist temple in Seoul on April 30, 2020.

  • One dose of Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccines was more than 86% effective at preventing COVID-19, data shows.
  • South Korean health officials said Tuesday that more than 520,000 Koreans over 60 had had a single shot.
  • The data from South Korea didn’t show how long protection lasts.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

A single dose of Pfizer or AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccines was more than 86% effective at stopping coronavirus in older people at least two weeks after vaccination, real-world data from South Korea shows.

Both vaccines are authorized to be given as two injections, spaced weeks apart, but this data again shows how effective the vaccines are overall.

The Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) said on Twitter Tuesday that one dose of the vaccine co-developed by Pfizer and BioNTech was 89.7% effective at preventing COVID-19 in South Koreans aged over 60. The vaccine co-developed by AstraZeneca and Oxford University was 86% effective at preventing COVID-19 after one dose, it said.

The KDCA analysis included more than 520,000 people who had been vaccinated with a single dose of either vaccine.

In the data collected, 1,237 COVID-19 cases were reported, and only 29 came from the vaccinated group, the KDCA said in a press release.

The agency didn’t provide a breakdown of how many people received each shot or the severity of illness – COVID-19 vaccines are generally more effective at preventing COVID-19 infections that cause hospitalization or death.

The KDCA said the vaccines’ protective effect was higher when the second vaccination was completed, so a second shot within the recommended period was “absolutely necessary”.

Read more: One slide lays out Pfizer’s busy 2021 plans for its COVID-19 vaccine, including when it could start being used in kids

South Korea’s findings adds to a growing body of real-world data suggesting that a single shot of a COVID-19 vaccine protects against COVID-19, but it’s still not clear how long protection from a single dose may last.

Real-world data from the UK, posted as a pre-print study on April 23, found that either Pfizer or AstraZeneca’s vaccine cut COVID-19 infections with symptoms by 72%. Protection from a single dose probably holds up for at least 10 weeks, based on measurements of antibody levels, the study, which wasn’t peer-reviewed, said.

Another real-world study from Scotland published in the Lancet on April 23 found that a single dose of Pfizer’s vaccine was 91% effective against hospitalization at 28 to 34 days following vaccination. One dose of AstraZeneca’s vaccine was 88% effective against hospital admissions after the same time period, the study found.

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One dose of AstraZeneca or Pfizer’s vaccine provides protection against COVID-19 that lasts at least 10 weeks

pfizer vaccine distribution UK
A nurse prepares to inject staff with the Pfizer/BioNtech covid-19 vaccine at Bradley Manor residential care home in Belfast on December 9, 2020.

  • A single dose of Pfizer-BioNTech of AstraZeneca-Oxford University COVID-19 vaccine reduced infections by 65% in a UK survey of about 275,000 people.
  • Effectiveness rose to 72% against COVID-19 with symptoms.
  • Antibody responses lasted for up to 10 weeks for both vaccines, the study found.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

A single dose of a COVID-19 vaccine can give people significant protection against the disease for at least 10 weeks, a UK study of about 375,000 people suggests.

There was a 65% reduction in COVID-19 infections overall after one dose of either the AstraZeneca-Oxford University or Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, study authors from Oxford said in a press briefing on Thursday. Protection from a single dose probably holds up for at least 10 weeks, based on measurements of antibody levels.

The vaccines are intended to be given as two injections, spaced several weeks apart. But the UK has pursued a strategy of delaying the second vaccine dose for up to 12 weeks to give more people a first injection. The study provides evidence supporting that strategy, said Sarah Walker, a professor of medical statistics and epidemiology at Oxford who led the survey.

“But people must get their second dose,” she added.

Getting a second dose of Pfizer’s vaccine boosted people’s protection. Researchers found that in people who’d had both doses, the vaccine reduced the number of overall infections by 90%. There’s not enough data yet to draw any conclusions on AstraZeneca’s shot. Doses of Pfizer’s shot are supposed to be given three weeks apart, while AstraZeneca jabs can be given four to 12 weeks apart.

The studies provide more evidence that COVID-19 vaccines work

The data provide the latest real-world evidence that coronavirus vaccines are highly effective at halting the virus. Another real-world study from Israel published in February showed Pfizer’s vaccine was 94% effective at preventing COVID-19 with symptoms when two doses were given 21 days apart.

The UK results come from the National COVID-19 Infection Survey conducted by Oxford University, the Office of National Statistics and the Department of Health and Social Care. The Oxford researchers who led the study were not involved in the coronavirus vaccine work with AstraZeneca.

The researchers collected 3.9 million random nasal coronavirus swabs from more than 218,000 UK households between December 2020 and April. They then looked at how many people got infected with the coronavirus, and checked whether or not those people were immunized.

“The benefit of this study is learning real world effectiveness,” said Sarah Walker, a professor of medical statistics and epidemiology at Oxford who led the survey. “The scale of the study is helpful here in determining what is going on in a range of different ages and groups.”

The results were released as two studies posted as pre-prints on Friday, and have not yet been scrutinized by other experts in a peer review.

To figure out how long protection may last, the authors also looked at the antibodies the body creates in response to being vaccinated. Antibodies are one part of the natural defenses against infection that vaccines are intended to stimulate.

Antibodies from the vaccines lasted for at least 10 weeks

They found that after one dose of either vaccine, antibodies persisted for at least 10 weeks, across all age groups. A second dose of Pfizer’s shot boosted antibody levels. Results aren’t provided for a time period longer than 10 weeks.

Pfizer has released data showing that protection from its vaccine lasts for at least six months. Still, some medical experts have suggested that people may need annual boosters to maintain protection over time.

The UK study didn’t look at whether the vaccines prevented hospitalization or death. Another pre-print study from Scotland posted on February 22 suggested that one vaccine dose helps protect against hospitalizations, but effectiveness waned after five weeks.

The Oxford scientists cautioned that immunized individuals can still get COVID-19 and transmit the virus, even if at a lower rate than those who have not had a COVID-19 shot at all.

They did find that a single dose of either vaccine provided more protection against infections associated with a high level of virus particles, known as a viral load. People with a higher level of the virus may be more likely to transmit the virus to others.

The vaccines also worked well at preventing symptomatic cases of coronavirus. There was a 72% reduction in symptomatic infections, but just a 57% reduction in infections that didn’t cause symptoms after one dose.

“The people with symptoms are those who could potentially end up in hospital,” Walker said.

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Watch: Insider answers your questions about the risk of rare but serious blood clots following some COVID-19 vaccines

COVID-19 vaccines from AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson are under close scrutiny following reports of rare blood clots in people who received them.

AstraZeneca’s vaccine has been linked with unusual blood clots that can occur in the brain, called central venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), or in the spleen. EU regulators now list these reactions as a rare, but serious side effect of AstraZeneca’s vaccine.

The US hasn’t authorized AstraZeneca’s vaccine yet, but countries that have approved it are now weighing the small risk of blood clots against the shot’s many advantages. The UK has advised people under 30 to seek alternate shots, if available.

AstraZeneca’s shot is still highly effective at preventing severe COVID-19. It’s also fairly cheap and can be stored at normal fridge temperatures, making it a critical part of the global vaccine rollout.

J&J’s vaccine, which uses a similar virus-based technology, is under investigation in the US to see whether it also causes CVST. So far, US regulators have identified at least six CVST cases following the administration of J&J’s shot, and the shot’s use is paused.

European drug regulators are allowing the use of J&J’s shot again, after saying a warning about the risk of rare blood clots should be added to the shot’s product information.

J&J’s vaccine is a single dose, so it’s often easier to administer in rural areas or to vulnerable populations.

On Thursday, April 15, Insider health and science reporters Dr. Catherine Schuster-Bruce and Aria Bendix addressed what’s at stake for the pandemic in the wake of blood clot reports. They also answered your burning questions about who is most at risk of clots and whether other vaccines could cause adverse events, too.

Read the original article on Business Insider

Investigations into possible rare, serious vaccine side effects are not worrying – they’re reassuring

fauci vaccine
Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, prepares to receive his first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine at the National Institutes of Health on December 22, 2020 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  • The European regulator this week declared the AstraZeneca-Oxford University vaccine safe.
  • But it will keep investigating reports of rare clots after vaccination, particularly among younger women.
  • These investigations into side effects shouldn’t worry us – they’re a sign monitoring is working.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

All effective medicines have side effects. We put up with them because, overall, the medicines make us feel better, or prevent something far worse.

The same principle applies to COVID-19 vaccines.

The benefits of AstraZeneca’s shot in preventing COVID-19 – which has killed 2.6 million people worldwide – outweighs the risk of any side effects, the European medicines regulator said Thursday. Its statement followed a thorough investigation into reports of rare and serious blood clots in vaccinated people.

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) said it found no increased risk of blood clots overall with AstraZeneca’s vaccine. But it couldn’t rule out a link between the vaccine and very rare, serious blood clots in the brain, or a clotting disorder called disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), particularly in women under 55 years old.

The EMA still recommended that people in this demographic take the shot because the risk of these blood disorders was “extremely small.”

Despite the recommendation, France announced Friday that it would not give people under 55 AstraZeneca’s vaccine.

Ian Douglas, professor of pharmacoepidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, told Insider that the EMA’s announcement was not worrying, but “reassuring.”

It not only showed that potential side effects were being monitored closely, but that regulators were being upfront with the public, he said.

“For these reports to happen, there needs to be a suspicion of a link. But everytime we hear it, it won’t mean that it has been caused by the vaccine necessarily,” he said.

“It would be worse if all this was being done in secret, and something got out.”

Lots we still don’t know about the rare blood clots

There are lots of details that we don’t yet know about the 25 reported cases of serious clots: 18 in the brain, seven elsewhere in the body, related with DIC.

It’s possible that these people were at increased risk of blood clots anyway. For example, they may have had underlying illnesses linked to clots, including COVID-19, or an inherited blood disorder. Smoking, the combined oral contraceptive pill, and hormone replacement therapy are all common reasons a woman under 55 may have an increased blood-clot risk.

The EMA also said that a greater number of women under 55 may have been immunized with AstraZeneca’s vaccine, due to targeted vaccine campaigns in different EU countries.

The EMA has updated the AstraZeneca vaccine’s leaflet for patients and healthcare professionals to include signs and symptoms of clotting, so people know when to seek help. A severe or worsening headache or blurred vision after immunization requires prompt medical attention, for example, whereas a mild headache doesn’t.

Regulators may well establish more potential links between serious illness and other COVID-19 vaccines over the next few months, and issue more guidance. This shouldn’t cause alarm: it’s simply a sign that the monitoring system works.

Read the original article on Business Insider

There’s no evidence yet that AstraZeneca’s vaccine causes blood clots, and experts say any risks are outweighed by the shot’s benefits

GettyImages 1231181187
A vaccinator administers an injection of AstraZeneca/Oxford Covid-19 vaccine to a patient at a vaccination centre in Chester, northwest England, on February 15, 2021.

  • Denmark and Norway suspended the use of AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 shot Thursday as a “precautionary measure”.
  • The Danish Health authorities cited concerns about blood clots in people that had received the shot.
  • Data suggests that the risk of clots is no greater than in the population at large.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Denmark, Norway, and Iceland suspended their roll out of AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford’s COVID-19 vaccine as a “precautionary” step Thursday, citing concerns about blood clots in people who had received the shot.

One person in Denmark who was immunized with the vaccine died from a blood clot, the Danish Health Authority said in a statement Thursday. At this point, it’s not known whether there is a link between the vaccine and blood clots, it said.

This follows Austrian authorities saying Sunday that a 49-year-old woman had died as a result of severe coagulation disorders after taking the shot.

The Danish Health authorities said officials “have to react” to reports of possible serious side effects, although there was “good evidence” that the vaccine was both safe and effective.

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) OK’d the shot on January 29, having looked extensively at all its safety and efficacy data, but individual countries can ultimately decide whether they give it to their citizens.

AstraZeneca vaccine and blood clots: the stats so far

There have been a total of four reported cases in Europe of people getting vaccinated with a specific batch of AstraZeneca’s shot and then developing blood clots afterwards, according to the EMA. The batch of 1 million doses had been sent to 17 EU countries, including Denmark.

At least five countries – Austria, Estonia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, and Latvia – have suspended the use of this particular batch. Norway, Denmark, and Iceland suspended the vaccine completely.

The EMA said Wednesday that one person in Europe had been diagnosed with multiple blood clots in vessels 10 days after vaccination. It was unclear whether this was the Danish case, although by that time Austrian authorities had already reported a death.

Insider contacted the Danish health authority for clarification, and a spokesperson said that they were “not at liberty to inform on the data that we receive from other authorities, national or international.”

Another person in Europe was hospitalized with a blood clot in the lung after being vaccinated, who was “now recovering,” the EMA said.

The time-frame between getting the vaccine and developing the clot for this person was not documented.

There were two other reports of blood clots, the EMA said. No further details were provided such as age, or whether they had medical conditions that made their blood more likely to clot.

No more blood clots than in general population

The EMA said in a press release that overall, as of Thursday, there had been 30 cases amongst more than 5 million who had been vaccinated with AstraZeneca’s shot overall. There was no indication that the vaccine caused blood clots, and this wasn’t a known side effect, they said.

Professor Jon Gibbons, director of the Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research at the University of Reading, said in a statement that blood clots in the general population were relatively common, and affected an average of between one and two people per 1,000 – a higher proportion than 30 in 5 million.

“Therefore if there is any association between the vaccine and clotting, the risk is likely to be very low indeed,” he said.

Dr. Phil Bryan, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) safety lead, said in a statement that the number of reports of blood clots received so far in the UK – where more than 11 million doses of AstraZeneca’s vaccine have been given – were not greater than what would have occurred usually in a population that size.

The UK did not receive the batch from which the four most recent reports of clots arose.

Denmark’s approach ‘super’ cautious

Stephen Evans, professor of pharmacoepidemiology at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, said in a statement that the Danish approach was “super” cautious.

“Since we know with great certainty that the vaccine prevents COVID-19, and we are almost totally uncertain that the vaccine can have caused this problem, the risk and benefit balance is still very much in favour of the vaccine in my view,” he said.

Evans said that it was difficult to distinguish between coincidence and the vaccine’s side effects.

“This is especially true when we know that COVID-19 disease is very strongly associated with blood clotting and there have been hundreds if not many thousands of deaths caused by blood clotting as a result of COVID-19 disease,” he said.

Professor Anthony Harnden, Deputy Chair of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation – the organization that advises the UK’s vaccine strategy – said in a statement that the public should have “confidence” that AstraZeneca’s vaccine was “safe and highly effective at preventing severe disease, including the prevention of blood clots caused by COVID-19.”

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Pakistan approves AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use

Karachi Pakistan Masks Man with Child Market January 2021.JPG
A man and child with protective masks walk outside a market as the coronavirus disease pandemic continues, in Karachi, Pakistan,

Pakistan on Saturday approved the coronavirus vaccine developed by AstraZeneca and Oxford University for emergency use, according to multiple reports. 

Asad Umar, a government official working on the vaccine rollout, said the vaccine will first be given to people older than 65 and healthcare workers, according to The Associated Press.  

Speaking on Saturday, Umar said provinces and the private sector were free to import the drug, subject to the approval of the Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan (DRAP), according to Dawn, a local newspaper. 

Read more: What’s coming next for COVID-19 vaccines? Here’s the latest on 11 leading programs.

“From day 1, the [National Command and Operation Centre] has adopted the policy that the federal government shall not have the monopoly to import anti-coronavirus vaccines,” said Umar, according to Dawn.

AstraZeneca Vaccine Bottles COVID 19 coronavirus.JPG
AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine.

Pakistan late last year signed an agreement with China’s National Pharmaceutical Group, known as Sinopharm, for more than a million doses of its vaccine, according to The Express Tribune. Sinopharm’s drug has not yet been approved by DRAP. 

The country may also import “tens of millions” of doses of a vaccine made by China’s CanSinoBio, Faisal Sultan, special assistant to the prime minister on national health services, told the newspaper

Pakistan has had 519,291 confirmed COVID-19 cases, with 10,951 deaths, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University.

In the last week, about 307 people died following COVID-19 infections, down from the country’s record high of 861 weekly deaths in mid-June, according to Johns Hopkins. 

A second wave of coronavirus cases hit Pakistan in November and December, according to data shared on Twitter by Umar earlier this month. 

Umar urged people in Pakistan to follow safety regulations in an effort to flatten the curve. 

Last week, he said: “Data clearly shows that covid health consequences are strongly correlated with our decisions & personal choices. Hence it’s important that we all take responsibility & take precautions. If we do the right things we shall inshallah continue to safeguard lives & livelihoods.” 

Neighboring India began the world’s largest vaccination drive on Saturday, with the goal of inoculating 300,000 people in one day. India approved AstraZeneca’s vaccine, which goes under the name Covishield in the country, for emergency use in early January.


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AstraZeneca’s stock jumps after the UK authorizes emergency use of its vaccine, which it created with Oxford University

injection britain england flag vaccine
Oxford University and AstraZeneca’s vaccine has two names – ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and AZD122

  • AstraZeneca’s stock rose on Wednesday after the UK authorized the vaccine it created with Oxford University.
  • It is the second vaccine authorized for emergency use in the UK, after Pfizer and BioNTech’s.
  • AstraZeneca’s vaccine is easy to store and requires standard refrigeration. Other COVID-19 shots need cold storage. 
  • One chief market strategist said these less cumbersome logistical needs could help the vaccine end further UK restrictions.
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

AstraZeneca’s stock jumped on Wednesday after Britain authorized emergency use of the COVID-19 vaccine it developed with Oxford University. 

The pharma group was among the FTSE 100’s leaders as its shares jumped 0.7% in early European trading. Its shares were up about 3.3% at the start of trade.

The vaccine should be available early in 2021, AstraZeneca said.

Britain’s approval is “certainly good news because there is no doubt that the current coronavirus vaccine demand is nowhere close enough to supply,” said Naeem Aslam, chief market analyst at AvaTrade. 

The approval should improve the coronavirus situation in the UK, where COVID-19 cases continue to surge, and much of the country is in lockdown, he said.

Read More: Jason Teed has beaten 99% of his investor peers this year. He breaks down how his Morningstar gold-rated fund did it with a trend-following strategy, and shares his advice for navigating the stock market in 2021.

A new variant of the coronavirus that appears to be more easily transmissible has been blamed for the wave of new cases. The country registered a record high of 53,135 new cases and 414 fatalities on Tuesday, bringing the seven-day case count to more than 272,000. 

AstraZeneca’s vaccine is the second to be approved in the UK, after Pfizer and BioNTech’s. More than 600,000 people in the country have already been vaccinated with the first dose of the two-dose Pfizer shot. 

Read More: Bank of America highlights its top 8 stock picks in the booming housing sector – including one it expects to rally 54% next year

Several parts of England went into the highest tier of coronavirus restrictions on December 20. People in these areas have been advised to stay at home.

AstraZeneca’s vaccine can be stored in a standard refrigerator – the other COVID-19 vaccines require cold storage.

Its rollout could stop further restrictions in the UK, given its less cumbersome logistical and storage requirements, according to Stephen Innes, chief global market strategist at Axi. 

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AstraZeneca will work with the makers of Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine to test a combined shot. This could make people more immune, and for a longer period of time, it said.

covid vaccine
A photo illustration show a syringe. Argentina was selected to test a vaccine against COVID-19, it is estimated that the clinical phases will begin in August.

  • The COVID-19 vaccine being developed by AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford will be combined with Russia’s Sputnik V shot, which the country has already authorized for emergency use.
  • In a press release on Friday, AstraZeneca said that it would “soon begin exploring” combining its shot with one made by Russia’s Gamaleya Research Institute, which developed Sputnik V. 
  • It did not specifically say that it was combining its vaccine with the Russian shot — but Russia’s sovereign wealth fund, which is financing the country’s vaccine development, confirmed the vaccine in question is one of two vectors that make up Sputnik V.
  • Trials will start by the end of 2020, the wealth fund said.
  • Combining two different vaccines could improve their accessibility as well as providing better protection against COVID-19, AstraZeneca said.
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AstraZeneca, the British drugmaker working with the University of Oxford to develop a COVID-19 vaccine, plans to work with the developers of Russia’s Sputnik V to explore a combined shot, it said.

AstraZeneca “will soon begin exploring with Gamaleya Research Institute in Russia to understand whether two adenovirus-based vaccines can be successfully combined,” the drugmaker said in a statement Friday, naming the developer of the Sputnik V vaccine, but not the specific shot.

The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), Russia’s sovereign wealth fund, confirmed the vaccine in question was one of two vectors that make up Sputnik V.

Clinical trials are slated to begin by the end of December, the RDIF, which is financing the development of Sputnik V, added.

This is the second time AstraZeneca’s vaccine is being used in a “mix and match” trial. On Tuesday, the head of the UK’s vaccine taskforce said it would combine the shot with Pfizer’s vaccine to see if the two vaccines together produce a stronger immune response.

Combining different COVID-19 vaccines “may be helpful to improved protection and/or to improve vaccine accessibility,” AstraZeneca said Friday, adding that it “is also likely that combining vaccines may lead to improved immunity over a longer-period of time.”

The RDIF welcomed the cooperation between vaccine producers, its CEO Kirill Dmitriev said Friday, and said it hoped other vaccine producers will follow the example. The RDIF and the Gamaleya Institute approached AstraZeneca in November to suggest combining vaccines.

“The decision by AstraZeneca to carry out clinical trials using one of two vectors of Sputnik V in order to increase its own vaccine’s efficacy is an important step towards uniting efforts in the fight against the pandemic,” Dmitriev added.

Read more: Pharmacies, doctor’s offices, and hospitals are gearing up to give coronavirus vaccines to millions of Americans. Here’s how they’re preparing and how much they stand to profit along the way.

AstraZeneca’s vaccine has not been authorized for use anywhere in the world. In November, AstraZeneca said it would retest its vaccine after admitting that the most positive results in its first trial came from a dosing error.

Russia gave Sputnik V emergency-use authorization on August 11, making it the world’s first vaccine to be approved. The country has been giving it to frontline healthcare workers, though it hasn’t started mass vaccination yet because it’s still in trial stages.

Russia says the vaccine is more than 90% effective.

Why are drugmakers combining different vaccines?

Vaccines often require multiple doses. Pfizer, Moderna, and AstraZeneca’s vaccines each require two shots given two to four weeks apart. The first dose is an initial prime, followed by a boost.

“Homologous boosting” is when all shots are the same vaccine, but what AstraZeneca is testing is “heterologous boosting,” where two different vaccines are given.

“It is … likely that combining vaccines may lead to improved immunity over a longer-period of time,” AstraZeneca said in its statement.

The practice could also improve vaccine accessibility, it said, by making immunization programs more flexible.

Sputnik V itself uses two different adenoviral vectors for its two shots, which it says produces a stronger and longer-term immune response.

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