How much gas costs in different regions of the US

gas station lines
A customer pumps gas at Costco, as a worker directs traffic, on Tuesday, May 11, 2021, in Charlotte, N.C.

  • Americans are on the move again with travel up 54.6% in April 2021 from April 2020.
  • Gas prices vary throughout the US; prices are over $3.80 per gallon on the West Coast.
  • The following map shows what gas prices are as of July 5 in seven regions across the US.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

It’s summer and Americans are hitting the road and traveling again.

According to the US Energy Information Administration, travel on roads and streets is up 54.6% in April 2021 from the same time a year ago when many states had stay-at-home orders in place.

If you’re planning to take a road trip this summer or spend more time outside than last year, you may want to check out the price of gas in your area. Gas prices have climbed over the past year and as Insider’s Heather Schlitz reported, the American Automobile Association said gas prices could reach a seven-year high, increasing to $3.25 by the end of August.

Gas prices vary depending on where you live in the US.

This map shows the price of regular gasoline per gallon as of July 5, 2021 using data from the US Energy Information Administration. The map is split into Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts, or PADD regions, where each state belongs to a region. We highlighted the prices for the sub-PADDs that make up the East Coast, as the EIA data shows that prices differ within the East Coast region.

Regular gas prices in the West Coast PADD were higher than other regions at $3.84 per gallon. Regular gas prices in the Lower Atlantic PADD, which includes states like Florida and Georgia, were $2.92 per gallon.

Read the original article on Business Insider

This map shows which US counties had more births than deaths over a year

  • The Census Bureau recently published 2020 population estimates for US counties.
  • We looked at natural population changes within the US, or the difference between births and deaths.
  • The above map shows which counties saw more births than deaths and vice versa from 2019 to 2020.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Recently released data from the Census Bureau shows which places in the United States had more births or more deaths between 2019 and 2020.

Last week’s release of county-level data included 2020 population estimates, net domestic migration estimates, and net international migration estimates. This new dataset also included the natural population change from July 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, or the difference between births and deaths in a county during that time. This means the data covers part of last year when COVID-19 started to spread throughout the US.

Provisional National Vital Statistics System data reported by the Centers for Disease Control showed COVID-19 was the third leading cause of death in the US last year. Heart disease was the leading cause, followed by cancer.

Using the new Census data that shows births, deaths, and natural increase data for 3,143 county and county-equivalents, Insider looked at what natural population changes looked like across the nation from 2019 to 2020.

The places in red in the above map are where there were more deaths than births per 1,000 residents from July 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, while blue counties indicate that there were more births than deaths per 1,000 residents in those places. Insider adjusted the natural increases and decreases by each county’s 2019 population.

Based on the map, more counties in the Northeast experienced natural decreases in a year, or more deaths than births, than counties that saw natural increases in this region of the US. This was also the case in the South. For instance, every county in West Virginia, with the exception of two counties, saw more deaths than births.

There were more births than deaths in many counties that make up the Western region of the US. For instance, every county in Utah, except Daggett County, saw a natural increase from 2019 to 2020.

The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest natural increases per 1,000 residents among counties with at least 10,000 residents in 2019:

Although Harris County, Texas, had the largest natural increase at 35,172, Madison County in Idaho had the largest natural increase when adjusting by 2019 population estimates. This county had a natural increase of 981 people, or an increase of 24.40 per 1,000 residents.

We can also look at the places that saw more deaths than births in just a year among counties with large populations. The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest natural decreases per 1,000 residents among counties with at least 10,000 residents in 2019:

Although Pinellas County, Florida, had the largest natural decrease at -5,893, Sumter County in Florida, had the largest natural decrease when adjusting by 2019 population estimates. This county had a natural decrease of 1,800 people, or a decrease of 13.46 per 1,000 residents.

It is important to note that the estimates released on May 4 are not the 2020 decennial census results.

“These estimates are based on the 2010 Census and were created without incorporation or consideration of the 2020 Census results,” the Census Bureau wrote about the population estimates. “They are typically used in comparisons with the 2020 Census to make determinations about the accuracy of the estimates.”

Read the original article on Business Insider

Here’s where immigrants are moving to in the US

  • New Census Bureau data shows how many people moved in and out of the US between 2019 and 2020.
  • We looked at net international migration changes at the county level by adjusting for population size.
  • Based on this, a few California counties had the largest negative net international migration.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Immigration is one of the key drivers of population growth in the US. Here’s where people from other countries moved to last year.

The Census Bureau released population estimates on May 4 for 3,143 counties and county-equivalents. The new data show how populations have changed from 2019 to 2020.

Not only does the new data show where Americans were moving around the US in the past year but also how many people were moving in and of the country.

The Census data includes estimates of net international migration, or the number of people immigrating into the county from outside the US minus people moving out of the US to a different country.

Red counties in the above map mean more people moved out than in, and blue counties mean more people moved in than out. We adjusted each county’s net international migration from July 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020, by its 2019 population.

When adjusting for population size, some of the counties with the largest negative net international migration were located in California, Idaho, and Kansas.

We decided to also look at net international migration among just large counties. The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest increases from net international migration per 1,000 residents among counties with at least 10,000 residents in 2019:

Miami-Dade County, Florida, had the largest postive net international migration estimate among all counties. This county saw 28,593 more residents from July 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020.

Some counties saw more people moving out to other countries than moving in from abroad. The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest decreases from net international migration per 1,000 residents among counties with at least 10,000 residents in 2019:

Based on the above table, six of the 10 counties with the largest decreases from net international migration among counties with at least 10,000 residents and adjusted by the county’s 2019 population were in California.

The county-level population estimates part of the data release on May 4 are not the same as the official numbers from the 2020 decennial census. “The estimates are based on the 2010 Census and were created without incorporation or consideration of the 2020 Census results,” the Census Bureau wrote about the population estimates.

Read the original article on Business Insider

Here’s where Americans are moving to and from

  • The Census Bureau recently published population change estimates between 2019 and 2020.
  • Insider looked at which counties saw the largest changes from net domestic migration.
  • Large counties in Florida saw more Americans moving in than out.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Americans were moving during the pandemic, even if at least temporarily, and new data from the Census Bureau shows just how many counties saw more Americans moving in than those moving out to somewhere else in the US.

One Zillow survey released last month found 11% of Americans moved during the pandemic. The results showed the “highest net inbound moves in the first 11 months of 2020″ were in Phoenix; Charlotte, North Carolina; and Austin, Texas.

The latest data release from the Census Bureau on May 4 can give some sense of just where people were moving within the US throughout the pandemic. Census Bureau’s Tuesday release of 2020 population estimates include net domestic migration, or the number of people moving into a county from elsewhere in the US minus people moving out to another part of the country.

Red counties in the above map mean more people moved out than in, and blue counties mean more people moved in than out. We adjusted each county’s net domestic migration from July 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020, by its 2019 population.

Based on the map, more counties in the West saw people moving in than out, while more counties in the Midwest saw more people moving out than in.

Insider previously reported that people were moving to states like Texas and Florida amid the pandemic in part due to these states lower costs of living. Based on the map, almost all of Florida’s counties saw more people moving in than out. Only eight of Florida’s 67 counties saw a negative net domestic migration.

Although counties out West mainly had postive net migration, the majority of counties in California had negative net domestic migration between 2019 and 2020. San Francisco County, Napa County, and Santa Cruz County, are three counties in The Golden State that had more people moving out than in.

Fifty-five of the 62 counties that make up New York had a negative net domestic migration from July 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020. Among the counties in the state that did see a positive net domestic migration, Saratoga County had the largest increase at 830 new residents or 3.61 people per 1,000 residents when adjusting for the county’s 2019 population.

Some counties saw really large increases from net domestic migration compared to others. The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest increases from net domestic migration per 1,000 residents among counties with at least 10,000 residents in 2019:

Almost all of the top 10 are located in Southern states. The top two counties with the largest net domestic migration, adjusted by the county’s 2019 population and among counties with 10,000 residents, are both located in Florida. Four of the 10 counties are located in Texas.

While some counties experienced big increases of more people moving in than out, others saw large decreases. The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest decreases from net domestic migration per 1,000 residents among counties 10,000 residents in 2019:

The table shows that some other counties in Southern states had large decreases from net domestic migration when adjusting for population size and among counties with at least 10,000 residents. Some of the other counties that saw a lot of people moving out are in the Midwest.

It is important to note that the Vintage population figures released earlier this week are not the same as the figures from the 2020 decennial census. “The estimates are based on the 2010 Census and were created without incorporation or consideration of the 2020 Census results,” the Census Bureau wrote about the population estimates.

Read the original article on Business Insider

How to make a map in ‘Minecraft’ to keep track of your location and world

15   How to make a map in minecraft
Making a map in “Minecraft” takes just a few simple materials.

  • You can make a map in “Minecraft” by combining a compass with eight pages of paper.
  • If you hold a map as you travel, it’ll track your location and record information about the land around you.
  • Once you’ve made a map in “Minecraft,” you can craft banners to mark off special points in the world.
  • Visit Insider’s Tech Reference library for more stories.

Minecraft” worlds are massive, and it’s easy to get lost if you stray too far from your base. To keep yourself on track, you could erect beacons, use torches – or simply draw a map.

You can craft, trade for, or find maps throughout your “Minecraft” world. These maps will help you figure out where you are, where you’ve been, and where you’re headed to. And once you’ve got a map, you can even add your own custom markers, which is great for noting your land’s most interesting features.

Here’s how to get your hands on a map in “Minecraft,” and then use it.

How to make or find a map in ‘Minecraft’

There are three ways to get a map in “Minecraft:” make one, trade for one, or find one in a chest.

Crafting a map

To make a map in Minecraft, you’ll need one compass and eight pieces of paper. Both the paper and compass can be crafted with raw materials that you’ll dig and scavenge for within your world.

Firstly, paper. Paper is crafted from sugar cane, one of the most common resources around. Sugar cane grows near water in both swamp and desert biomes. Placing three pieces of sugar cane in a row on your crafting table will give you three pieces of paper. This means that you’ll need at least nine pieces of sugar cane for your map.

3   How to make a map in Minecraft
Crafting pieces of sugar cane together will give you paper.

Secondly, a compass. You can make one of these with four iron ingots and one piece of redstone dust. You can find iron ore and redstone dust easily when mining, especially as you get nearer to the bottom of the world. You’ll need an iron pickaxe or better to mine redstone.

5   How to make a map in Minecraft
Both iron and redstone can be found in underground caves.

Once you have at least one piece of redstone dust and four iron ore blocks, smelt the ore into four iron ingots with a furnace. Then at a crafting table, place the four ingots in four spaces adjacent to the center block, where you’ll place the redstone dust.

6   How to make a map in Minecraft
Place ingots in each of the cardinal directions, and some redstone dust in the center.

Once you have your materials, you can finally make a map. Place the compass in the center slot of the 3×3 crafting table area, and insert a paper in each of the other nine slots.

You now have an empty map, ready to be filled out.

8   How to make a map in Minecraft
An empty map looks like a yellowed sheet of paper.

Finding a map

“Craft” is obviously in the game’s name for a reason – most everything you use in-game can be crafted.

But you can also try your luck at acquiring an empty map in one of your world’s treasure chests. Treasure chests in sunken shipwrecks have about an eight percent chance of holding a map; the chest in a stronghold’s library has about a 11 percent chance; and the cartographer’s chest in a village has an almost 50 percent chance.

That said, if you’ve managed to find a cartographer, you can also talk to them to buy a map for seven or eight emeralds.

18   How to make a map in minecraft
You can place a cartography table in the path of an unemployed villager to create a cartographer, if you can’t find one already in the village.

How to use a map in ‘Minecraft’

Now you have an “empty map,” which isn’t particularly helpful. Fortunately, it’s easy to fix.

Simply equip and “use” the map to instantly draw a picture of everything around you. The game will also now assign a number to the map so it won’t be called empty anymore.

As you walk around with the map up, more and more of your surroundings will be filled in. You can track yourself with the tiny white marker.

9   How to make a map in Minecraft
A filled out map of a village.

Of course, your “Minecraft” world is bigger than what’s shown on the map. Once you leave its range, either make a new map to keep tracking yourself, or zoom your original map out.

You can zoom out your map by combining it with eight more pieces of paper at a crafting table, or only one more piece of paper at a cartography table. This can be done up to four times, and each zoom level doubles the map’s current range.

11   How to make a map in minecraft
Upgrade your maps to see more of the landscape.

How to find a saddle in ‘Minecraft’ and use it to ride horses, pigs, and moreHow to tame a fox in ‘Minecraft’ and get the game’s cutest NPC to follow youHow to update ‘Minecraft: Bedrock’ or ‘Java’ on a computer, console, or phoneHow to make an enchantment table in ‘Minecraft’ to power up your weapons and armor

Read the original article on Business Insider

This map shows the highest-paying job in every state, excluding doctors

Doctors earn a lot of money across the board, but other professions can also pay well.

Medical doctors of various specializations are the highest-paying job in many US states, including Washington, Colorado, and Maine. Insider took a look at the highest-paying job in each state and DC outside of the medical field.

For our analysis, we looked at occupations for which the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported at least 1,000 employees in the state with the highest average salary in 2020, the most recent year that data is available. The data comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program (previously the Occupational Employment Statistics program) and excludes several professions for medical doctors and dentists.

To get a sense of what occupations, other than doctors, are well paid across the US, we excluded family medicine physicians, surgeons, dentists, anesthesiologists, general internal medicine physicians, obstetricians and gynecologists, psychiatrists, and all other general physicians.

Chief executives dominate the non-medical occupations; this occupation is the highest-paying job in 19 states and Washington DC. Airline pilots, co-pilots, and flight engineers are the top-paying jobs other than doctors in six states.

Below we included the 11 different high-paying jobs across the US, apart from doctors, in alphabetical order. We also included their mean annual salary in each state and Washington DC.

Airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers

pilot

What they do, according to O*NETPilot and navigate aircrafts.

Alaska: $180,100

California: $229,110

Colorado: $200,040

Florida: $229,730

Michigan: $248,770

Nevada: $236,260

Architectural and engineering managers

architectural engineer

What they do, according to O*NETPlan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as architecture and engineering or research and development in these fields.

Hawaii: $154,070

Idaho: $151,950

Louisiana: $157,800

New Hampshire: $158,100

New Mexico: $172,910

Chief executives

Jamie Dimon, the chief executive of JPMorgan.
Jamie Dimon, the chief executive of JPMorgan.

What they do, according to O*NET: Develop policies and provide overall direction of companies or other organizations.

Alabama: $174,910

Arizona: $178,890

District of Columbia: $253,820

Illinois: $225,710

Indiana: $166,390

Kansas: $162,510

Kentucky: $162,670

Maine: $152,620

Massachusetts: $231,260

Missouri: $176,430

Nebraska: $197,850

New York: $218,720

North Carolina: $220,940

Ohio: $195,200

Pennsylvania: $227,250

Texas: $239,060

Utah: $158,730

Virginia: $236,820

Washington: $243,150

Wisconsin: $185,450

Computer and information systems managers

computer programmer

What they do, according to O*NET: Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as electronic data processing, information systems, systems analysis, and computer programming.

Georgia: $148,760

Iowa: $126,740

Maryland: $158,630

New Jersey: $191,120

Financial managers

sales manager

What they do, according to O*NETPlan, direct, or coordinate financial activities.

Connecticut: $170,500

Delaware: $176,630

North Dakota: $140,740

Rhode Island: $169,070

Vermont: $112,700

General and operations managers

business

What they do, according to O*NET: Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of public or private organizations.

South Dakota: $131,890

Wyoming: $101,060

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary

lecture class college

What they do, according to O*NET: Teach courses in health specialties, in fields such as dentistry and public health.

Mississippi: $162,670

Oregon: $169,060

Nurse anesthetists

nurse anesthetist

What they do, according to O*NETAdminister anesthesia, monitor patient’s vital signs, and oversee patient recovery from anesthesia.

Minnesota: $216,050

South Carolina: $185,850

Tennessee: $171,020

Petroleum engineers

petrolum engineer

What they do, according to O*NET: Devise methods to improve oil and gas extraction and production.

Oklahoma: $156,390

Pharmacists

pharmacist

What they do, according to O*NET: Dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other health practitioners and provide information to patients about medications and their use. 

Montana: $116,710

West Virginia: $129,440

Sales managers

talking to manager

What they do, according to O*NET: Plan, direct, or coordinate the actual distribution or movement of a product or service to the customer.

Arkansas: $138,030

Read the original article on Business Insider

This map shows how state finances held up better than expected during the pandemic – some much better

nyc subway
An R subway train arrives in a virtually empty Fifth Avenue station near Central Park on November 16, 2020 in New York City.

  • State finances didn’t take as big of a hit during the pandemic as expected.
  • In fact, half the states saw an increase in tax revenue, although some percent increases were small.
  • Idaho saw the largest tax collection increase between 2019 and 2020 at 12.5%.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

As the coronavirus pandemic pummeled the economy starting in spring 2020, states and cities seemed increasingly vulnerable. Would they be forgotten in stimulus relief efforts? Was New York City truly dead?

But the recently enacted $1.9 trillion American Rescue Plan might provide a strong start for state and local governments, which also weren’t pummeled as hard as some feared.

In fact, a new Bank of America note anticipates “the municipal market should see a new golden decade of strong growth and strengthening credit quality.” They see a new credit cycle coming for the new decade, where “revenue for state and local governments will outgrow debt.”

The first step for ushering in this new decade came in the form of $350 billion in direct aid to state and local governments – a measure some state treasurers had been pushing for.

In places like New York City, the stimulus relief will go a long way towards bridging budget deficits and shortfalls; the city alone is set to receive $5.6 billion, according to a previous BofA note.

Infrastructure is up next as Democrats’ next big agenda item. It’s also part of BofA’s predicted boon for cities and states, as the infrastructure package “will put the muni market at the center and overall muni credit should benefit from it and remain on a path of continuous improvement over this next decade.”

Tax collection grew in Idaho in 2020, while Alaska saw a large decline

BofA is optimistic about the impact that those now well-funded – and tax-collecting – governments will have as the economy begins to improve.

“The economic boom in 2021-2030 will likely be led by rising leverage of state and local governments,” BofA wrote in the note.

Even amid the pandemic last year, tax collection grew in some parts of the nation. Based on Census data, BofA finds there was only a 1.0% decline in US state tax collection in 2020. Percent changes further vary among states.

The resilience of state finances comes after prior worries over revenues falling during the pandemic, especially as states saw “steep” drops in the first half of 2020. In a February analysis, Pew Trusts dug into the “historic state tax revenue drop,” and noted that the “unpredictability” of the pandemic made the future of revenue trends unclear.

The following map highlights the percent change in total taxes collected from 2019 to 2020 by state using quarterly state and local tax revenue data from the Census Bureau:

As the Bank of America authors noted, half the states had increases, while the other half and DC saw declines. On the one end, Idaho saw the largest year-over-year tax collection growth at 12.5%. Idaho was the only state to see a percent increase in the double digits. Some states saw minimal growth from a year earlier, including Iowa and Connecticut.

Alaska had the largest percent decline from a year earlier, where total tax collection in 2020 was 33.6% below tax collection in 2019. North Dakota has the second-largest decline at where the state collected 22.9% less than the $4.87 billion collected in 2019. Arizona had the smallest year-over-year decline at -0.6%.

Read the original article on Business Insider

This map highlights the share of people who were born outside the US in every state

People hold signs during a rally in support of the Supreme Court's ruling in favor of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, in San Diego, California, on June 18, 2020.
People hold signs during a rally in support of the Supreme Court’s ruling in favor of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, in San Diego, California, on June 18, 2020.

  • The House is voting on two immigration bills this week.
  • The share of each state’s population who were born outside the US varies.
  • In New York, 22.4% of the population were born outside the US in 2019.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Immigration continues to be a hot topic in US politics, and as two immigration bills are being discussed in the House this week, there has also been an increase in the number of children arriving at the US-Mexico border.

As the conversation around immigration reform continues, Insider decided to look at the distribution of immigrant populations across the US. Using 2019 data on the number of residents who identified as foreign-born from the American Community Survey, the following map highlights the share of each state’s population who were born outside the US:

California has the highest share, where 26.7% of the 39.5 million people who lived there in 2019 were born outside the US. New Jersey and New York follow closely behind at 23.4% and 22.4% respectively. In contrast, 13 states have shares below 5.0%. West Virginia has the smallest share, where only 1.6% of its population was born outside of the US in 2019.

The foreign born data used includes both people who are not a US citizen and those who are naturalized citizens.

The House is voting on two immigration bills this week per the The Wall Street Journal. The bills are the Dream and Promise Act, which aims to help undocumented immigrants who came to the US as children, and the Farm Workforce Modernization Act, intended to help undocumented farmworkers. Both previously passed the House in 2019.

According to the Migration Policy Institute, 4.4 million people may benefit from the Dream and Promise Act, including Dreamers and people under Temporary Protected Status. The bill includes “conditional permanent resident status for 10 years.”

The Farm Workforce Modernization Act includes reforming the H-2A visa program and creating a way for farmers to obtain legal status.

At the same time, there has been a rise in children arriving alone at the US-Mexico border. According to CBS News, almost 3,000 of these unaccompanied children have stayed longer than the legal 72 hours in Customs and Border Protection. They are usually transferred to the Office of Refugee Resettlement after this time period, per the article.

According to The Washington Post, many unaccompanied minors are being held for longer, an average of 120 hours. According to the Associated Press, the Kay Bailey Hutchison Convention Center in Dallas, Texas, will be used temporarily as a place for thousands of teens to help with the capacity issue.

Read the original article on Business Insider

States with tech-heavy economies could see less long-term damage to their job markets from the pandemic

Las Vegas
  • BLS published employment growth projections that take into account the impact of the pandemic.
  • Brookings used those projections to see how growth differs from the baseline in different states.
  • Tourism-heavy states, like Nevada, see the biggest percent differences.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

DC and Massachusetts may experience smaller changes to their employment growth because of the pandemic than other states, based on a new Brookings report.

Mark Muro, senior fellow and policy director of the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings, and research assistant Yang You looked at how employment may change across the US over 10 years.

The analysis is based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ recent projections that consider how the pandemic may affect employment. The two alternate scenario projections from BLS take into account how potential changes in business and consumer behavior from the pandemic may affect employment in the long term.

For instance, BLS expects there to be a continued increase in telework and as a result more demand for tech jobs, like information security analysts.

Brookings’ analysis finds all states and metro areas will see less employment from what was originally projected, based on the percent differences between the pre-pandemic baseline and BLS’ estimates for how employment in different occupations could grow and shrink. However, some states will see greater differences.

Muro and You’s analysis finds that states where there are more opportunities for tech and science employment may see smaller declines in employment. Meanwhile, states with economies that rely on sectors that are expected to see larger drops in employment like accommodation and retail, may be more heavily affected.

The following map highlights the differences in employment between the pre-pandemic baseline and BLS’ post-pandemic projections by state from Brookings’ analysis:

Muro told Insider that most of the differences are modest. The map shows that DC has the smallest percent difference at -1.1%, where employment in the strong impact scenario in 2029 is projected to be around 9,500 lower than the baseline scenario of around 861,000 total jobs in the nation’s capital. Twenty-three states have percent differences of no more than -1.7%.

On the other hand, Nevada has a percent difference of -3.0%, where projected 2029 employment in the strong impact scenario is about 49,000 lower than the baseline of 1.6 million. Hawaii and Florida also have large percentage differences compared to most of the other states.

“This is evidence for the need for some of these vacation and tourism-oriented communities to consider ways they can diversify because this looks like a picture of a sustained, not calamitous, but very real kind of softening,” Muro told Insider.

Hawaii and Nevada are already considering ways to diversify the economy after their tourism-dependent economies were affected by restrictions during the pandemic, like casino closures in Nevada.

As Insider’s Aki Ito previously reported, Hawaii Gov. David Ige said in January that the state has to “diversify” its economy after the state’s tourism industry took a hit as a result of travel restrictions during the pandemic. In particular, Ige said he “will continue to promote technology-driven diversification of our economy.”

The Associated Press reported that Nevada Gov. Steve Sisolak similarly wants to diversify the state’s economy. This includes increasing its presence in the technology sector through Innovation Zones, which would give tech companies similar power to a county government, AP writes.

It is important to note the BLS projections may not be exactly what the employment situation looks like over the next decade but could give some indication of what to expect.

Read the original article on Business Insider

5 maps and charts show what a $15 minimum wage would really mean for workers across America

minimum wage protest
A group of BLM demonstrators protest the Federal Reserve Bank about $15 minimum wage in NYC to solidarity nationwide in Lower Manhattan at the financial district in New York, United States on July 20, 2020

  • The fight to raise the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour is gaining major traction.
  • Insider has been covering the potential impacts, value, and current wages.
  • These five graphics show the current state of the minimum wage and what a $15 minimum could mean.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

The fight for a $15 minimum wage is not a new one.

But it’s increasingly gained traction as Democrats push for it amidst other pandemic recovery measures, and the House and Senate are under Democratic control for the first time in years. President Joe Biden has been an outspoken supporter, reiterating his views again on Tuesday. 

Biden talked about his support for a gradual raise to a federal $15 minimum wage during a CNN town hall on Tuesday after an audience member expressed concern on what raising the minimum wage would mean for business owners like himself, particularly in the Midwest. 

“I do support a $15 minimum wage,” Biden said during the town hall. “I think there is equally as much, if not more, evidence to dictate that it would grow the economy and, long run and medium run, benefit small businesses as well as large businesses, and it would not have such a dilatory effect. But that’s a debatable issue.”

Biden said the concerns of business owners for how this rate changes are “totally legitimate,” but stressed the importance of a gradual raise.

“We’re at $7.25 an hour. No one should work 40 hours a week and live in poverty,” he said.

While a majority of Americans support the $15 minimum wage, per Insider polling, it’s still a contentious measure. There are concerns over potential employment losses and the big picture impacts.

A minimum wage increase would raise pay for 32 million workers, according to the Economic Policy Institute. Although it would likely be beneficial for millions of Americans, the Congressional Budget Office found that this hike would lift 900,000 Americans out of poverty but could also mean a loss of 1.4 million jobs.

A recent small business poll by CNBC and SurveyMonkey of over 2,000 small business owners also found that one-third of owners reported that they would have to lay off workers if the federal minimum wage rose to this hourly rate.

There is some opposition to the minimum wage being part of the $1.9 trillion federal relief package, including from two Democratic senators. If the increase is not part of the American Rescue Plan, then it could still be a standalone bill.  

To get a closer look at the benefits of raising the minimum wage, Insider looked at the minimum wage as it currently stands and when it may be $15 using various metrics, such as a state’s cost of living or the ratio between a minimum wage and a median wage.

The following maps and table take a closer look at the value of the current minimum wage and a proposed $15 minimum wage:

The federal minimum wage has been $7.25 since 2009; here’s when every state last increased their minimum wage.

Currently, 29 states have wages above the federal minimum, and 16 states are at the federal minimum. Five states default to the federal minimum, since they don’t have any minimum wage requirements.

The last time a state saw a minimum wage increase varies. Some minimum wage workers haven’t been paid a higher wage since the last time the federal raise was increased on July 24, 2009 as part of a three-step increase mandated by the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007.

Other states have been increasing their minimum wages over the years. Nineteen states raised their minimum wages on January 1, and New York state raised its minimum wage on December 31. 

On Tuesday, minimum wage workers in 15 cities held a Black History Month strike for a $15 minimum wage. Almost one-third of Black workers in America would get a raise from the proposed increase.

Read Insider’s full story on the last time every state had a minimum wage increase here

A common way to look at the minimum wage is to compare it to the median wage.

The median wage is the wage at which half of workers are paid more, and half are paid less. Comparing the minimum wage to the median wage can help identify how states will benefit from a boost to the minimum wage.

The ratio of the minimum wage to the median wage is called the Kaitz index. The higher the ratio — meaning the more people making close to the minimum wage — the more people will benefit from a minimum wage raise, since those near-minimum wage workers are likely to see their pay increase.

To estimate this ratio, we used current minimum wages and the median wages in 2019 from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Employment Statistics program

For example, New York’s median wage per the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2019 was $22.44, and the current minimum wage is $12.50, meaning the minimum wage in New York is 55.7% of its median wage.

Meanwhile, Texas’ minimum wage is much smaller than its median wage compared to New York. Texas’ minimum wage of $7.25 is 39.7% of its median wage of $18.28.

Read Insider’s full story on the Kaitz index here

It is possible to also look at this ratio with a $15 minimum wage to see how that rate would stack up against what a typical worker earns in every state.

Insider similarly used the median wage of every state to calculate the ratio of a $15 minimum wage to the state’s median wage. If the minimum wage was raised to $15, it would be over 60% of the median wage in every state.

For instance, a $15 minimum wage in Massachusetts would be 62.1% of its median wage in 2019 of $24.14, the lowest ratio among the states because Massachusetts has the highest median wage.

Read Insider’s full story on the Kaitz index here

But $15 wouldn’t go as far in states with higher costs of living compared to states with lower costs of living.

A $15 minimum wage will mean something different depending on where you live and work. Some states and cities are more expensive to live in than others. This map shows how much a $15 minimum wage will be worth in each state, based on an adjusted value using regional price parities.

The Bureau of Economic Analysis’ regional price parities show the price of goods and services relative to the national average.

This means states with higher regional price parities than the national average, like Hawaii and California, would mean the value of $15 is worth less than the US average value of $15. On the other hand, states with lower regional price parities, like Mississippi and New Mexico, would mean the value of $15 is worth more than $15 at the national average.

Read Insider’s full story on how much $15 is worth in every state here

Assuming a 2% inflation rate over the next few years, a $15 minimum wage in 2025 would be the same as around $13.90 today.

Even if an increase to the federal minimum wage isn’t passed soon, there are several states that have scheduled increases rising to an eventual $15 minimum wage. In California, minimum wage workers at places with 26 or more employees will see a $15 minimum wage as soon as next year.

Florida, where a supermajority of voters supported a ballot measure during the election that would raise the minimum wage to $15, will see annual increases that will reach that level in 2026.

Target inflation is 2%, and under this scenario, a federal minimum wage of $15 in 2025 is the same as about $13.86 in 2021. 

“I think that under all current forecasts of how inflation is going to play out over the next four years, it wouldn’t be worth that much less in 2025 than it’s worth now,” Harvard PhD scholar Anna Stansbury told Insider.

Read Insider’s full story on what a $15 minimum wage would be in 2021, for the federal minimum wage and several states gradually increasing the minimum wage to $15, here

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