If you’re planning to take a road trip this summer or spend more time outside than last year, you may want to check out the price of gas in your area. Gas prices have climbed over the past year and as Insider’s Heather Schlitz reported, the American Automobile Association said gas prices could reach a seven-year high, increasing to $3.25 by the end of August.
Gas prices vary depending on where you live in the US.
This map shows the price of regular gasoline per gallon as of July 5, 2021 using data from the US Energy Information Administration. The map is split into Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts, or PADD regions, where each state belongs to a region. We highlighted the prices for the sub-PADDs that make up the East Coast, as the EIA data shows that prices differ within the East Coast region.
Regular gas prices in the West Coast PADD were higher than other regions at $3.84 per gallon. Regular gas prices in the Lower Atlantic PADD, which includes states like Florida and Georgia, were $2.92 per gallon.
Using the new Census data that shows births, deaths, and natural increase data for 3,143 county and county-equivalents, Insider looked at what natural population changes looked like across the nation from 2019 to 2020.
The places in red in the above map are where there were more deaths than births per 1,000 residents from July 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, while blue counties indicate that there were more births than deaths per 1,000 residents in those places. Insider adjusted the natural increases and decreases by each county’s 2019 population.
Based on the map, more counties in the Northeast experienced natural decreases in a year, or more deaths than births, than counties that saw natural increases in this region of the US. This was also the case in the South. For instance, every county in West Virginia, with the exception of two counties, saw more deaths than births.
There were more births than deaths in many counties that make up the Western region of the US. For instance, every county in Utah, except Daggett County, saw a natural increase from 2019 to 2020.
The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest natural increases per 1,000 residents among counties with at least 10,000 residents in 2019:
Although Harris County, Texas, had the largest natural increase at 35,172, Madison County in Idaho had the largest natural increase when adjusting by 2019 population estimates. This county had a natural increase of 981 people, or an increase of 24.40 per 1,000 residents.
We can also look at the places that saw more deaths than births in just a year among counties with large populations. The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest natural decreases per 1,000 residents among counties with at least 10,000 residents in 2019:
Although Pinellas County, Florida, had the largest natural decrease at -5,893, Sumter County in Florida, had the largest natural decrease when adjusting by 2019 population estimates. This county had a natural decrease of 1,800 people, or a decrease of 13.46 per 1,000 residents.
It is important to note that the estimates released on May 4 are not the 2020 decennial census results.
“These estimates are based on the 2010 Census and were created without incorporation or consideration of the 2020 Census results,” the Census Bureau wrote about the population estimates. “They are typically used in comparisons with the 2020 Census to make determinations about the accuracy of the estimates.”
The Census data includes estimates of net international migration, or the number of people immigrating into the county from outside the US minus people moving out of the US to a different country.
Red counties in the above map mean more people moved out than in, and blue counties mean more people moved in than out. We adjusted each county’s net international migration from July 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020, by its 2019 population.
When adjusting for population size, some of the counties with the largest negative net international migration were located in California, Idaho, and Kansas.
We decided to also look at net international migration among just large counties. The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest increases from net international migration per 1,000 residents among counties with at least 10,000 residents in 2019:
Miami-Dade County, Florida, had the largest postive net international migration estimate among all counties. This county saw 28,593 more residents from July 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020.
Some counties saw more people moving out to other countries than moving in from abroad. The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest decreases from net international migration per 1,000 residents among counties with at least 10,000 residents in 2019:
Based on the above table, six of the 10 counties with the largest decreases from net international migration among counties with at least 10,000 residents and adjusted by the county’s 2019 population were in California.
The county-level population estimates part of the data release on May 4 are not the same as the official numbers from the 2020 decennial census. “The estimates are based on the 2010 Census and were created without incorporation or consideration of the 2020 Census results,” the Census Bureau wrote about the population estimates.
Americans were moving during the pandemic, even if at least temporarily, and new data from the Census Bureau shows just how many counties saw more Americans moving in than those moving out to somewhere else in the US.
One Zillow survey released last month found 11% of Americans moved during the pandemic. The results showed the “highest net inbound moves in the first 11 months of 2020″ were in Phoenix; Charlotte, North Carolina; and Austin, Texas.
The latest data release from the Census Bureau on May 4 can give some sense of just where people were moving within the US throughout the pandemic. Census Bureau’s Tuesday release of 2020 population estimates include net domestic migration, or the number of people moving into a county from elsewhere in the US minus people moving out to another part of the country.
Red counties in the above map mean more people moved out than in, and blue counties mean more people moved in than out. We adjusted each county’s net domestic migration from July 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020, by its 2019 population.
Based on the map, more counties in the West saw people moving in than out, while more counties in the Midwest saw more people moving out than in.
Insider previously reported that people were moving to states like Texas and Florida amid the pandemic in part due to these states lower costs of living. Based on the map, almost all of Florida’s counties saw more people moving in than out. Only eight of Florida’s 67 counties saw a negative net domestic migration.
Although counties out West mainly had postive net migration, the majority of counties in California had negative net domestic migration between 2019 and 2020. San Francisco County, Napa County, and Santa Cruz County, are three counties in The Golden State that had more people moving out than in.
Fifty-five of the 62 counties that make up New York had a negative net domestic migration from July 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020. Among the counties in the state that did see a positive net domestic migration, Saratoga County had the largest increase at 830 new residents or 3.61 people per 1,000 residents when adjusting for the county’s 2019 population.
Some counties saw really large increases from net domestic migration compared to others. The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest increases from net domestic migration per 1,000 residents among counties with at least 10,000 residents in 2019:
Almost all of the top 10 are located in Southern states. The top two counties with the largest net domestic migration, adjusted by the county’s 2019 population and among counties with 10,000 residents, are both located in Florida. Four of the 10 counties are located in Texas.
While some counties experienced big increases of more people moving in than out, others saw large decreases. The following table shows the 10 counties that saw the largest decreases from net domestic migration per 1,000 residents among counties 10,000 residents in 2019:
The table shows that some other counties in Southern states had large decreases from net domestic migration when adjusting for population size and among counties with at least 10,000 residents. Some of the other counties that saw a lot of people moving out are in the Midwest.
It is important to note that the Vintage population figures released earlier this week are not the same as the figures from the 2020 decennial census. “The estimates are based on the 2010 Census and were created without incorporation or consideration of the 2020 Census results,” the Census Bureau wrote about the population estimates.
“Minecraft” worlds are massive, and it’s easy to get lost if you stray too far from your base. To keep yourself on track, you could erect beacons, use torches – or simply draw a map.
You can craft, trade for, or find maps throughout your “Minecraft” world. These maps will help you figure out where you are, where you’ve been, and where you’re headed to. And once you’ve got a map, you can even add your own custom markers, which is great for noting your land’s most interesting features.
Here’s how to get your hands on a map in “Minecraft,” and then use it.
How to make or find a map in ‘Minecraft’
There are three ways to get a map in “Minecraft:” make one, trade for one, or find one in a chest.
Crafting a map
To make a map in Minecraft, you’ll need one compass and eight pieces of paper. Both the paper and compass can be crafted with raw materials that you’ll dig and scavenge for within your world.
Firstly, paper. Paper is crafted from sugar cane, one of the most common resources around. Sugar cane grows near water in both swamp and desert biomes. Placing three pieces of sugar cane in a row on your crafting table will give you three pieces of paper. This means that you’ll need at least nine pieces of sugar cane for your map.
Secondly, a compass. You can make one of these with four iron ingots and one piece of redstone dust. You can find iron ore and redstone dust easily when mining, especially as you get nearer to the bottom of the world. You’ll need an iron pickaxe or better to mine redstone.
Once you have at least one piece of redstone dust and four iron ore blocks, smelt the ore into four iron ingots with a furnace. Then at a crafting table, place the four ingots in four spaces adjacent to the center block, where you’ll place the redstone dust.
Once you have your materials, you can finally make a map. Place the compass in the center slot of the 3×3 crafting table area, and insert a paper in each of the other nine slots.
You now have an empty map, ready to be filled out.
Finding a map
“Craft” is obviously in the game’s name for a reason – most everything you use in-game can be crafted.
But you can also try your luck at acquiring an empty map in one of your world’s treasure chests. Treasure chests in sunken shipwrecks have about an eight percent chance of holding a map; the chest in a stronghold’s library has about a 11 percent chance; and the cartographer’s chest in a village has an almost 50 percent chance.
That said, if you’ve managed to find a cartographer, you can also talk to them to buy a map for seven or eight emeralds.
How to use a map in ‘Minecraft’
Now you have an “empty map,” which isn’t particularly helpful. Fortunately, it’s easy to fix.
Simply equip and “use” the map to instantly draw a picture of everything around you. The game will also now assign a number to the map so it won’t be called empty anymore.
As you walk around with the map up, more and more of your surroundings will be filled in. You can track yourself with the tiny white marker.
Of course, your “Minecraft” world is bigger than what’s shown on the map. Once you leave its range, either make a new map to keep tracking yourself, or zoom your original map out.
You can zoom out your map by combining it with eight more pieces of paper at a crafting table, or only one more piece of paper at a cartography table. This can be done up to four times, and each zoom level doubles the map’s current range.
Doctors earn a lot of money across the board, but other professions can also pay well.
Medical doctors of various specializations are the highest-paying job in many US states, including Washington, Colorado, and Maine. Insider took a look at the highest-paying job in each state and DC outside of the medical field.
For our analysis, we looked at occupations for which the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported at least 1,000 employees in the state with the highest average salary in 2020, the most recent year that data is available. The data comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics program (previously the Occupational Employment Statistics program) and excludes several professions for medical doctors and dentists.
To get a sense of what occupations, other than doctors, are well paid across the US, we excluded family medicine physicians, surgeons, dentists, anesthesiologists, general internal medicine physicians, obstetricians and gynecologists, psychiatrists, and all other general physicians.
Chief executives dominate the non-medical occupations; this occupation is the highest-paying job in 19 states and Washington DC. Airline pilots, co-pilots, and flight engineers are the top-paying jobs other than doctors in six states.
Below we included the 11 different high-paying jobs across the US, apart from doctors, in alphabetical order. We also included their mean annual salary in each state and Washington DC.
In fact, a new Bank of America note anticipates “the municipal market should see a new golden decade of strong growth and strengthening credit quality.” They see a new credit cycle coming for the new decade, where “revenue for state and local governments will outgrow debt.”
In places like New York City, the stimulus relief will go a long way towards bridging budget deficits and shortfalls; the city alone is set to receive $5.6 billion, according to a previous BofA note.
Infrastructure is up next as Democrats’ next big agenda item. It’s also part of BofA’s predicted boon for cities and states, as the infrastructure package “will put the muni market at the center and overall muni credit should benefit from it and remain on a path of continuous improvement over this next decade.”
Tax collection grew in Idaho in 2020, while Alaska saw a large decline
BofA is optimistic about the impact that those now well-funded – and tax-collecting – governments will have as the economy begins to improve.
“The economic boom in 2021-2030 will likely be led by rising leverage of state and local governments,” BofA wrote in the note.
Even amid the pandemic last year, tax collection grew in some parts of the nation. Based on Census data, BofA finds there was only a 1.0% decline in US state tax collection in 2020. Percent changes further vary among states.
The resilience of state finances comes after prior worries over revenues falling during the pandemic, especially as states saw “steep” drops in the first half of 2020. In a February analysis, Pew Trusts dug into the “historic state tax revenue drop,” and noted that the “unpredictability” of the pandemic made the future of revenue trends unclear.
As the Bank of America authors noted, half the states had increases, while the other half and DC saw declines. On the one end, Idaho saw the largest year-over-year tax collection growth at 12.5%. Idaho was the only state to see a percent increase in the double digits. Some states saw minimal growth from a year earlier, including Iowa and Connecticut.
Alaska had the largest percent decline from a year earlier, where total tax collection in 2020 was 33.6% below tax collection in 2019. North Dakota has the second-largest decline at where the state collected 22.9% less than the $4.87 billion collected in 2019. Arizona had the smallest year-over-year decline at -0.6%.
Immigration continues to be a hot topic in US politics, and as two immigration bills are being discussed in the House this week, there has also been an increase in the number of children arriving at the US-Mexico border.
As the conversation around immigration reform continues, Insider decided to look at the distribution of immigrant populations across the US. Using 2019 data on the number of residents who identified as foreign-born from the American Community Survey, the following map highlights the share of each state’s population who were born outside the US:
California has the highest share, where 26.7% of the 39.5 million people who lived there in 2019 were born outside the US. New Jersey and New York follow closely behind at 23.4% and 22.4% respectively. In contrast, 13 states have shares below 5.0%. West Virginia has the smallest share, where only 1.6% of its population was born outside of the US in 2019.
The foreign born data used includes both people who are not a US citizen and those who are naturalized citizens.
The House is voting on two immigration bills this week per the The Wall Street Journal. The bills are the Dream and Promise Act, which aims to help undocumented immigrants who came to the US as children, and the Farm Workforce Modernization Act, intended to help undocumented farmworkers. Both previously passed the House in 2019.
At the same time, there has been a rise in children arriving alone at the US-Mexico border. According to CBS News, almost 3,000 of these unaccompanied children have stayed longer than the legal 72 hours in Customs and Border Protection. They are usually transferred to the Office of Refugee Resettlement after this time period, per the article.
According to The Washington Post, many unaccompanied minors are being held for longer, an average of 120 hours. According to the Associated Press, the Kay Bailey Hutchison Convention Center in Dallas, Texas, will be used temporarily as a place for thousands of teens to help with the capacity issue.
For instance, BLS expects there to be a continued increase in telework and as a result more demand for tech jobs, like information security analysts.
Brookings’ analysis finds all states and metro areas will see less employment from what was originally projected, based on the percent differences between the pre-pandemic baseline and BLS’ estimates for how employment in different occupations could grow and shrink. However, some states will see greater differences.
Muro and You’s analysis finds that states where there are more opportunities for tech and science employment may see smaller declines in employment. Meanwhile, states with economies that rely on sectors that are expected to see larger drops in employment like accommodation and retail, may be more heavily affected.
The following map highlights the differences in employment between the pre-pandemic baseline and BLS’ post-pandemic projections by state from Brookings’ analysis:
Muro told Insider that most of the differences are modest. The map shows that DC has the smallest percent difference at -1.1%, where employment in the strong impact scenario in 2029 is projected to be around 9,500 lower than the baseline scenario of around 861,000 total jobs in the nation’s capital. Twenty-three states have percent differences of no more than -1.7%.
On the other hand, Nevada has a percent difference of -3.0%, where projected 2029 employment in the strong impact scenario is about 49,000 lower than the baseline of 1.6 million. Hawaii and Florida also have large percentage differences compared to most of the other states.
“This is evidence for the need for some of these vacation and tourism-oriented communities to consider ways they can diversify because this looks like a picture of a sustained, not calamitous, but very real kind of softening,” Muro told Insider.
Hawaii and Nevada are already considering ways to diversify the economy after their tourism-dependent economies were affected by restrictions during the pandemic, like casino closures in Nevada.
As Insider’s Aki Ito previously reported, Hawaii Gov. David Ige said in January that the state has to “diversify” its economy after the state’s tourism industry took a hit as a result of travel restrictions during the pandemic. In particular, Ige said he “will continue to promote technology-driven diversification of our economy.”
The Associated Press reported that Nevada Gov. Steve Sisolak similarly wants to diversify the state’s economy. This includes increasing its presence in the technology sector through Innovation Zones, which would give tech companies similar power to a county government, AP writes.
It is important to note the BLS projections may not be exactly what the employment situation looks like over the next decade but could give some indication of what to expect.
“I do support a $15 minimum wage,” Biden said during the town hall. “I think there is equally as much, if not more, evidence to dictate that it would grow the economy and, long run and medium run, benefit small businesses as well as large businesses, and it would not have such a dilatory effect. But that’s a debatable issue.”
Biden said the concerns of business owners for how this rate changes are “totally legitimate,” but stressed the importance of a gradual raise.
“We’re at $7.25 an hour. No one should work 40 hours a week and live in poverty,” he said.
While a majority of Americans support the $15 minimum wage, per Insider polling, it’s still a contentious measure. There are concerns over potential employment losses and the big picture impacts.
To get a closer look at the benefits of raising the minimum wage, Insider looked at the minimum wage as it currently stands and when it may be $15 using various metrics, such as a state’s cost of living or the ratio between a minimum wage and a median wage.
The following maps and table take a closer look at the value of the current minimum wage and a proposed $15 minimum wage:
The federal minimum wage has been $7.25 since 2009; here’s when every state last increased their minimum wage.
The last time a state saw a minimum wage increase varies. Some minimum wage workers haven’t been paid a higher wage since the last time the federal raise was increased on July 24, 2009 as part of a three-step increase mandated by the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007.
Read Insider’s full story on the last time every state had a minimum wage increase here.
A common way to look at the minimum wage is to compare it to the median wage.
The median wage is the wage at which half of workers are paid more, and half are paid less. Comparing the minimum wage to the median wage can help identify how states will benefit from a boost to the minimum wage.
The ratio of the minimum wage to the median wage is called the Kaitz index. The higher the ratio — meaning the more people making close to the minimum wage — the more people will benefit from a minimum wage raise, since those near-minimum wage workers are likely to see their pay increase.
For example, New York’s median wage per the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2019 was $22.44, and the current minimum wage is $12.50, meaning the minimum wage in New York is 55.7% of its median wage.
Meanwhile, Texas’ minimum wage is much smaller than its median wage compared to New York. Texas’ minimum wage of $7.25 is 39.7% of its median wage of $18.28.
Read Insider’s full story on the Kaitz index here.
It is possible to also look at this ratio with a $15 minimum wage to see how that rate would stack up against what a typical worker earns in every state.
Insider similarly used the median wage of every state to calculate the ratio of a $15 minimum wage to the state’s median wage. If the minimum wage was raised to $15, it would be over 60% of the median wage in every state.
For instance, a $15 minimum wage in Massachusetts would be 62.1% of its median wage in 2019 of $24.14, the lowest ratio among the states because Massachusetts has the highest median wage.
Read Insider’s full story on the Kaitz index here.
But $15 wouldn’t go as far in states with higher costs of living compared to states with lower costs of living.
A $15 minimum wage will mean something different depending on where you live and work. Some states and cities are more expensive to live in than others. This map shows how much a $15 minimum wage will be worth in each state, based on an adjusted value using regional price parities.
This means states with higher regional price parities than the national average, like Hawaii and California, would mean the value of $15 is worth less than the US average value of $15. On the other hand, states with lower regional price parities, like Mississippi and New Mexico, would mean the value of $15 is worth more than $15 at the national average.
Read Insider’s full story on how much $15 is worth in every state here.
Assuming a 2% inflation rate over the next few years, a $15 minimum wage in 2025 would be the same as around $13.90 today.
Even if an increase to the federal minimum wage isn’t passed soon, there are several states that have scheduled increases rising to an eventual $15 minimum wage. In California, minimum wage workers at places with 26 or more employees will see a $15 minimum wage as soon as next year.
Florida, where a supermajority of voters supported a ballot measure during the election that would raise the minimum wage to $15, will see annual increases that will reach that level in 2026.
Target inflation is 2%, and under this scenario, a federal minimum wage of $15 in 2025 is the same as about $13.86 in 2021.
“I think that under all current forecasts of how inflation is going to play out over the next four years, it wouldn’t be worth that much less in 2025 than it’s worth now,” Harvard PhD scholar Anna Stansbury told Insider.
Read Insider’s full story on what a $15 minimum wage would be in 2021, for the federal minimum wage and several states gradually increasing the minimum wage to $15, here.