A map shows how many people had undiagnosed COVID-19 in the first 6 months of the pandemic, across 7 regions of the US

Biking covid new york
A bike lane in New York City.

  • During the first six months of the pandemic, 16.8 million coronavirus cases went undiagnosed in the US.
  • That’s according to a report that compares the prevalence of coronavirus antibodies in various regions.
  • The Mid-Atlantic saw the most undiagnosed cases – nearly 9 out of every 100 people – by July 2020.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

On paper, the US’s summer and winter coronavirus surges look far more devastating than the first one in the spring of 2020.

But a new report published in the journal Science Translational Medicine offers the most robust look yet at how widespread the virus actually was during that initial wave. The results show that for every diagnosed case of COVID-19 in the US, nearly five others went undiagnosed during the first six months of the pandemic.

That amounts to roughly 16.8 million undiagnosed cases by mid-July 2020 – in addition to the 3 million cases officially reported during that time.

Kaitlyn Sadtler, an investigator at the National Institutes of Health who worked on the study, told Insider that her team spent several months making sure the figure was right.

“It was shocking to an extent of, ‘Wow, that’s a lot of people,’ but at the same time, we knew that there was this big black box out there – the unknown,” she said.

The estimates are based on a collection of blood samples, which the researchers gathered from around 9,000 people across the US from April 1 to August 4, 2020. None of the individuals sampled had ever been diagnosed with COVID-19, but nearly 5% of the samples came back positive for coronavirus antibodies. The researchers determined that these people had gotten undiagnosed infections.

Some regions were hit harder than others, they found. The Mid-Atlantic saw the highest prevalence of COVID-19 cases: Nearly 9 out of every 100 people in the region had an undiagnosed infection, according to the report.

The map below shows how that compares to other regions across the country.

regional covid prevalence

Nearly 7% of people in the Northeast had an undiagnosed infection, compared with less than 2% in the West and Midwest, 3% in the South and Central US, and 4.5% in the Southwest.

Undiagnosed cases were most commonly found among Black Americans: Around 14% of the samples from the group came back positive for coronavirus antibodies. Meanwhile, around 2% of samples from white and Asian American people came back positive – the lowest of any racial group.

Undiagnosed infections were also more common among people ages 18 to 44 than among older age groups – 6% of those samples tested positive for antibodies.

If more young people got COVID-19 early in the pandemic than we thought, it could mean the US is closer to herd immunity than experts were estimating. (Vaccination rates are still relatively low among young Americans – just 38% of people ages 18 to 29 have gotten at least one dose compared to 80% of those ages 65 and older.)

However, Sadtler said people should assume they’re still vulnerable to infection until they’ve gotten a vaccine.

“It definitely doesn’t mean that younger folks should rely on thinking they might have had an infection,” Sadtler said. “Everybody should go out and get vaccinated.”

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This map shows how many same-sex couple families live in each state

same-sex family
  • June is Pride Month, and more and more US adults self-identify as LGBT, according to Gallup.
  • The Census Bureau’s American Community Survey includes data on how many households in a state are same-sex couples.
  • Delaware had the highest share, excluding DC, of same-sex couple households in a state at 1.3%.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

June is Pride Month, and an increasing share of US adults identify as LGBT.

According to Gallup, 5.6% of Americans 18 and over identified as LGBT in 2020, up from 3.5% in 2012. Additionally, 54.6% of LGBT adults self-identified as bisexual in 2020. At the generation level, 15.9% of Gen Z identified as LGBT compared to 9.1% of millennials and 3.8% of Gen X.

“One of the main reasons LGBT identification has been increasing over time is that younger generations are far more likely to consider themselves to be something other than heterosexual,” Gallup wrote.

Data from the Census Bureau also provides some information about LGBTQ+ adults. The Census’ American Community Survey has data about who makes up households, including same-sex married and unmarried couples.

Based on the 2019 American Community Survey, the most recent year with data available, there were 980,276 same-sex couple households in the US. Among same-sex couple households, 568,110 or 58% were same-sex married couple households. Less than 1% of the 122,802,852 total US households, 0.8%, were same-sex couple households in 2019.

We can further see the breakdown at the state level. The following map shows the share of same-sex couple households in a state in 2019:

Delaware had the highest share of households in the state that are same-sex couples. In Delaware, 4,793 of the 376,239 households, or 1.3%, were same-sex couple households in 2019. DC had an even higher share at 2.4%, where 7,003 of the 291,570 households were same-sex households in 2019. On the other hand, North Dakota had the smallest share among households in the state at 0.2% or 785 households.

Although Delaware had the highest share among households in the state, California had the largest number. There were 85,104 same-sex married couple households and 50,752 same-sex unmarried couple households for a total of 135,856. That means 1.0% of households in California are same-sex couples.

Overall, the Census Bureau wrote 65.1% of same-sex couples in 2019 had both partners working, higher than the 51.1% among opposite-sex couples. Male same-sex couples had a slightly larger percentage of both partners working compared to female same-sex couples at 75.8% and 72.6% respectively.

Additionally, the Census Bureau found based on the Current Population Survey that 14.7% of same-sex couples in the US in 2019 had at least one child under 18 at home. That is lower than the 37.8% for opposite-sex couples. This may in part explain why same-sex couples are more likely to have both partners working than opposite-sex couples.

“The presence of young children may influence a couple’s decision to have one parent stay home to care for the children,” the Census Bureau wrote.

The percent share of same-sex couples with children where both parents were employed was higher than the share for opposite-sex couples, at 72.4% and 65.6% respectively, based on 2019 data from the American Community Survey. The shares were still higher for same-sex couples than opposite-sex couples when looking at working partners with children under 6 and between 6 to 17.

The Census Bureau notes things like age and marital status may also play some role in the differences in percentages between both partners working for same-sex and opposite-sex couples.

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The most detailed map yet of all dark matter in the universe reveals cosmic voids where the laws of physics seem not to apply

dark matter map
Earth-based telescopes like the Victor M. Blanco Telescope dome in Chile have helped scientists map our universe.

  • Astronomers have created the most comprehensive map yet of all dark matter in the universe.
  • Though invisible, scientists can measure dark matter’s gravity because it pulls galaxies into clumps.
  • The new map indicates dark matter’s gravity may work differently than Einstein’s theory of relativity suggests.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Astronomers have created the most comprehensive map yet of all the dark matter in the universe.

That’s no easy feat, considering dark matter is invisible. Scientists know this shadowy cousin of regular matter exists, though, because its strong gravitational forces can pull entire galaxies together. Based on observations of its influence, astronomers estimate that dark matter makes up one-quarter of the universe.

The new map is the product of years of work by a group of 400 scientists from seven countries, known as the Dark Energy Survey (DES). They pointed the Victor M. Blanco Telescope in Chile skyward to peek at millions of galaxies bound together by dark matter. The distribution of those galaxies, and the ways in which light from them reaches Earth, can inform astronomers about how much dark matter sits between those galaxies and our planet.

In a series of studies published this week, the team showed that the universe is peppered with giant clusters of galaxies bunched together – regions where dark matter, too, is densely packed. But their map, which covers about one-eighth of the sky as seen from Earth, also documents patches of the universe that are nearly devoid of both dark matter and galaxies. These cluttered and empty areas appear to be connected by interstellar gas in a cosmic web.

“It shows us new parts of the universe that we’ve never seen before. We can really see this cosmic web structure, including these enormous structures called cosmic voids, which are very low-density regions of the universe where there are very few galaxies and less matter,” Niall Jeffrey, a cosmologist at University College London, told the Guardian.

The photo below shows a section of the new map; the voids are in black, while the galaxy clusters are bright orange.

dark matter map
A zoomed-in view of the Dark Energy Survey’s dark matter map.

According to Jeffrey, the new findings suggest that gravity may not work the same way in these voids as it does on Earth, which would mean the standard laws of physics do not apply.

Light from 226 million galaxies

While dark matter is unobservable, the force it exerts on other things in the universe helps scientists detect it.

Dark matter bends light coming toward Earth from other galaxies, a bit like a kaleidoscope. So by measuring the intensity of that distortion, astronomers can calculate how much dark matter sits between us and another galaxy, and how smushed together that dark matter is. If a galaxy’s light is very distorted, it suggests the invisible dark matter obscuring it from view is densely clumped.

dark matter map
The DES dark matter map (in purple) superimposed on an image of the Milky Way galaxy.

So Jeffrey and his team looked at how light from more than 226 million galaxies, both nearby and billions of miles away, was getting distorted.

They used the telescope to capture images of those galaxies for 345 nights between 2013 and 2016, then relied on an artificial-intelligence program to translate those observations into their detailed map of dark matter.

The team collected data on another 413 nights before the survey ended 2019, so DES scientists plan to create an even larger, more detailed dark-matter map using the rest of their observations.

The map suggests Einstein might have been wrong

According to Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity, gravity should have caused chunks of matter in the universe to clump up in a predictable way after the Big Bang some 13 billion years ago.

But according to Jeffrey, the DES map suggests Einstein’s theory may have missed the mark to some degree.

“If you look out into the universe, the matter isn’t as clumpy as expected – there are hints that it is smoother,” Jeffrey told the Guardian.

“It may seem a relatively small thing,” he added, “but if these hints are true, then it may mean there’s something wrong with Einstein’s theory of general relativity, one of the great pillars of physics.”

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How to make a map in ‘Minecraft’ to keep track of your location and world

15   How to make a map in minecraft
Making a map in “Minecraft” takes just a few simple materials.

  • You can make a map in “Minecraft” by combining a compass with eight pages of paper.
  • If you hold a map as you travel, it’ll track your location and record information about the land around you.
  • Once you’ve made a map in “Minecraft,” you can craft banners to mark off special points in the world.
  • Visit Insider’s Tech Reference library for more stories.

Minecraft” worlds are massive, and it’s easy to get lost if you stray too far from your base. To keep yourself on track, you could erect beacons, use torches – or simply draw a map.

You can craft, trade for, or find maps throughout your “Minecraft” world. These maps will help you figure out where you are, where you’ve been, and where you’re headed to. And once you’ve got a map, you can even add your own custom markers, which is great for noting your land’s most interesting features.

Here’s how to get your hands on a map in “Minecraft,” and then use it.

How to make or find a map in ‘Minecraft’

There are three ways to get a map in “Minecraft:” make one, trade for one, or find one in a chest.

Crafting a map

To make a map in Minecraft, you’ll need one compass and eight pieces of paper. Both the paper and compass can be crafted with raw materials that you’ll dig and scavenge for within your world.

Firstly, paper. Paper is crafted from sugar cane, one of the most common resources around. Sugar cane grows near water in both swamp and desert biomes. Placing three pieces of sugar cane in a row on your crafting table will give you three pieces of paper. This means that you’ll need at least nine pieces of sugar cane for your map.

3   How to make a map in Minecraft
Crafting pieces of sugar cane together will give you paper.

Secondly, a compass. You can make one of these with four iron ingots and one piece of redstone dust. You can find iron ore and redstone dust easily when mining, especially as you get nearer to the bottom of the world. You’ll need an iron pickaxe or better to mine redstone.

5   How to make a map in Minecraft
Both iron and redstone can be found in underground caves.

Once you have at least one piece of redstone dust and four iron ore blocks, smelt the ore into four iron ingots with a furnace. Then at a crafting table, place the four ingots in four spaces adjacent to the center block, where you’ll place the redstone dust.

6   How to make a map in Minecraft
Place ingots in each of the cardinal directions, and some redstone dust in the center.

Once you have your materials, you can finally make a map. Place the compass in the center slot of the 3×3 crafting table area, and insert a paper in each of the other nine slots.

You now have an empty map, ready to be filled out.

8   How to make a map in Minecraft
An empty map looks like a yellowed sheet of paper.

Finding a map

“Craft” is obviously in the game’s name for a reason – most everything you use in-game can be crafted.

But you can also try your luck at acquiring an empty map in one of your world’s treasure chests. Treasure chests in sunken shipwrecks have about an eight percent chance of holding a map; the chest in a stronghold’s library has about a 11 percent chance; and the cartographer’s chest in a village has an almost 50 percent chance.

That said, if you’ve managed to find a cartographer, you can also talk to them to buy a map for seven or eight emeralds.

18   How to make a map in minecraft
You can place a cartography table in the path of an unemployed villager to create a cartographer, if you can’t find one already in the village.

How to use a map in ‘Minecraft’

Now you have an “empty map,” which isn’t particularly helpful. Fortunately, it’s easy to fix.

Simply equip and “use” the map to instantly draw a picture of everything around you. The game will also now assign a number to the map so it won’t be called empty anymore.

As you walk around with the map up, more and more of your surroundings will be filled in. You can track yourself with the tiny white marker.

9   How to make a map in Minecraft
A filled out map of a village.

Of course, your “Minecraft” world is bigger than what’s shown on the map. Once you leave its range, either make a new map to keep tracking yourself, or zoom your original map out.

You can zoom out your map by combining it with eight more pieces of paper at a crafting table, or only one more piece of paper at a cartography table. This can be done up to four times, and each zoom level doubles the map’s current range.

11   How to make a map in minecraft
Upgrade your maps to see more of the landscape.

How to find a saddle in ‘Minecraft’ and use it to ride horses, pigs, and moreHow to tame a fox in ‘Minecraft’ and get the game’s cutest NPC to follow youHow to update ‘Minecraft: Bedrock’ or ‘Java’ on a computer, console, or phoneHow to make an enchantment table in ‘Minecraft’ to power up your weapons and armor

Read the original article on Business Insider

Marijuana legalization is sweeping the US. See every state where cannabis is legal.

medical marijuana cbd hemp weed smoking joint leafly flowers cannabis cox 82
  • Marijuana is legal for adults in 15 states and Washington, D.C. Medical marijuana is legal in 36.
  • New Jersey, Arizona, Montana, and South Dakota voted to legalize recreational marijuana in November’s elections.
  • New York legalized recreational cannabis on March 31.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

Marijuana legalization is spreading around the US.

Since 2012, 15 states and Washington, DC, have legalized marijuana for adults over the age of 21. And 36 states have legalized medical marijuana – meaning that a majority of Americans have access to marijuana, whether medically or recreationally.

New York became the latest state to embrace cannabis when Gov. Andrew Cuomo signed a bill legalizing marijuana on March 31. His move came shortly after New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy signed legislation officially legalizing marijuana in his state.

New Jersey was one of four states, along with Arizona, Montana, and South Dakota, where voters backed legalizing recreational cannabis in November. Voters in Mississippi approved the creation of a medical cannabis program.

Virginia and New Mexico are also close to legalizing recreational cannabis.

Some states that passed medical or recreational legislation through ballot measures have yet to iron out the details. For that reason Insider does not include South Dakota or Mississippi in our tally of markets where the substance is legal. Both states have faced legislative opposition to rolling out their programs.

Though Canada legalized marijuana federally in 2018, the US has not followed suit, forcing states to chart their own courses. As it stands, marijuana is still considered an illegal Schedule I drug by the US federal government.

Joe Biden’s victory in the presidential election and the Democratic party’s control of Congress could give marijuana a bigger boost in the US. In March, the SAFE Banking Act – a bill that would help cannabis businesses access banks – was reintroduced in both chambers of Congress.

Biden has said he would support federal decriminalization of the drug, and Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer has said that marijuana reform will be a priority for the Senate this year.

All the states where marijuana is legal:

This article was first published in January 2018 and has been updated with new information about where cannabis is legal. It was updated on April 1 with New York’s legalization. Melia Russell contributed to an earlier version of this story.

Alaska

cannabis
A cannabis-testing laboratory in Santa Ana, California.

Adults 21 and over can light up in Alaska. In 2015, the northernmost US state made it legal for residents to use, possess, and transport up to an ounce of marijuana — roughly a sandwich bag full — for recreational use. The first pot shop opened for business in 2016.

Alaska has pounced on the opportunity to make its recreational-pot shops a destination for tourists. More than 2 million people visit Alaska annually and spend $2 billion.

Arizona

Curaleaf
Nate McDonald, General Manager of Curaleaf NY operations, talks about medical marijuana plants.

Arizona in 2020 voted to legalize cannabis for all adults over the age of 21

The measure had support from almost 60% of Arizona voters, according to Decision Desk HQ. 

The ballot measure was backed by a number of cannabis giants, including Curaleaf, Cresco, and Harvest Enterprises. 

The Arizona Department of Health Services began accepting applications for adult-use licenses on January 19. Approvals were issued just three days later on January 22. Sales began immediately.

Arizona rolled out adult-use sales faster than any other state that voted to pass recreational cannabis in the November elections. Companies already operating in the state’s medical market had a first crack at recreational customers.

 

 

California

cannabis
A MedMen store in West Hollywood, California, on January 2, 2018.

In 1996, California became the first state to legalize medical marijuana. California became even more pot-friendly in 2016 when it made it legal to use and carry up to 1 ounce of marijuana.

The law also permits adults 21 and over to buy up to 8 grams of marijuana concentrates, which are found in edibles, and grow no more than six marijuana plants per household.

Colorado

marijuana
A marijuana leaf.

In Colorado, there are more marijuana dispensaries than Starbucks and McDonald’s combined. The state joined Washington in becoming the first two states to fully legalize the drug in 2012.

Residents and tourists over the age of 21 can buy up to 1 ounce of marijuana or 8 grams of concentrates. Some Colorado counties and cities have passed more restrictive laws.

Illinois

JB Pritzker
Illinois Gov. J.B. Pritzker.

Illinois lawmakers in June 2019 passed a bill that legalized the possession and commercial sale of marijuana in the state starting on January 1, 2020.

Gov. J.B. Pritzker, who made marijuana legalization a core component of his campaign for the governor’s office, signed the bill into law.

Illinois is the one of the few states to legalize marijuana sales through a state legislature, rather than a ballot initiative.

Maine

marijuana
Harvested cannabis plants at Hexo Corp.’s facilities in Gatineau, Quebec, on September 26, 2018.

A ballot initiative in 2016 gave Maine residents the right to possess up to 2.5 ounces of marijuana, more than double the limit in most other states.

Massachusetts

cannabis
Medicinal cannabis cigarettes on July 12, 2018, at a cultivation facility in Milford, Massachusetts.

Massachusetts was the first state on the East Coast to legalize marijuana after voters approved the measure in 2016. 

Marijuana dispensaries opened their doors to consumers in November 2018. Adults over the age of 21 can purchase up to 1 ounce of marijuana but cannot consume it in public.

Michigan

marijuana
The Far West Holistic Center dispensary on November 7, 2018, in Detroit.

Voters in Michigan passed Proposition 1 in 2018, making it the first state in the Midwest to legalize the possession and sale of marijuana for adults over the age of 21. Adults can possess up to 2.5 ounces of marijuana, and residents can grow up to 12 plants at home.

The law is more permissive than other states with legal marijuana: Most allow residents to possess only up to 1 ounce at a time.

Montana

Cannabis
A CPlant employee organizes a box of hemp for export at the company’s farm on the outskirts of Tala, Uruguay, Thursday, Aug. 13, 2020.

Montana in 2020 voted to legalize recreational marijuana for adults 21 and over

Montana residents are officially allowed to use marijuana as of January 1, 2021. A year later, the state will begin to open up applications for dispensaries. 

New Jersey

cannabis
A CPlant employee trims a hemp flower for export at the company’s farm on the outskirts of Tala, Uruguay, Thursday, Aug. 13, 2020.

New Jersey in 2020 voted to legalize recreational marijuana for adults 21 and older, opening a market that could near $1 billion.

In February, Gov. Phil Murphy signed the legalization legislation, after months of back-and-forth arguments about criminal penalties for minors possessing marijuana and the proper way to set up a licensing framework for cannabis sales in the state, among other details. Sales of cannabis for adult use could start in the second half of this year, analysts at Cowen said.

New York

new york when is weed legal timeline
A man holds a sign at a pro-legalization rally outside of New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s office in Manhattan

After two failed attempts to legalize adult-use cannabis in New York, the state finally passed recreational marijuana on March 31, 2021.

Though New Yorkers are now able to possess and smoke cannabis legally in the state, sales aren’t expected to begin for at least a year.

Andrew Carter, an analyst at Stifel, said he expects recreational cannabis sales to begin in late 2022. Analysts from Cantor Fitzgerald and Stifel estimated that New York could become a $5 billion cannabis market by 2025.

Nevada

marijuana recreational dispensary las vegas nevada
The Essence cannabis dispensary on July 1, 2017, in Las Vegas.

Residents and tourists who are 21 and over can buy 1 ounce of marijuana or one-eighth of an ounce of edibles or concentrates in Nevada.

There’s bad news if you want to grow your own bud, though. Nevada residents must live 25 miles outside the nearest dispensary to be eligible for a grower’s license.

Oregon

marijuana cannabis cost Canada United States
Oregon’s Finest medical-marijuana dispensary in Portland, Oregon, on April 8, 2014.

Oregon legalized marijuana in 2015, and sales in the state started October 1 of that year. 

South Dakota

Aurora Cannabis
A team member of Aurora Cannabis works in the grow room at Aurora Sky cannabis growing greenhouse in Alberta, Canada, in this 2018 handout image.

South Dakota in 2020 voted to legalize both medical and recreational cannabis, the first time a state has voted in favor of both at the same time.

State lawmakers have until April 2022 to create rules around cannabis, including regulations around dispensaries.  

Vermont

cannabis
Cannabis plants in a laboratory.

Vermont became the first state to legalize marijuana through the legislature, rather than a ballot initiative, when Republic Gov. Phil Scott signed a bill into law in January 2018.

Adults in the Green Mountain State can carry up to 1 ounce of marijuana and grow no more than two plants for recreational use. The law went into effect in July 2018. But it was limited in scope. It didn’t establish a legal market for the production and sale of the drug.

In 2020, the state legislature passed a bill that would allow for adult-use sales in the state. All localities must opt-in to allow for dispensaries, however. Sales are expected in 2022.

Washington

medical marijuana
A medical-marijuana plantation on March 21, 2017.

Marijuana was legalized for recreational use in Washington in 2012.

The state allows people to carry up to 1 ounce of marijuana, but they must use the drug for medicinal purposes to be eligible for a grower’s license.

Washington, DC

Capitol Hill sunset

Residents in the nation’s capital voted overwhelmingly to legalize marijuana for adult use in November 2014.

The bill took effect in 2015, allowing people to possess 2 ounces or less of marijuana and “gift” up to an ounce, if neither money nor goods or services are exchanged.

Read the original article on Business Insider

All the states where marijuana is legal – and 5 more that voted to legalize it in November

medical marijuana cbd hemp weed smoking joint leafly flowers cannabis cox 82
  • Marijuana is legal for adults in 15 states and Washington D.C. Medical marijuana is legal in 34.
  • New Jersey, Arizona, Montana, and South Dakota voted to legalize recreational marijuana in November’s elections.
  • South Dakota also voted in favor of a medical-cannabis program, as did Mississippi.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

Marijuana legalization is spreading around the US. 

Since 2012, 15 states and Washington, DC, have legalized marijuana for adults over the age of 21. And 36 states have legalized medical marijuana – meaning that a majority of Americans now have some form of access to marijuana, whether medically or recreationally.

Four more states – New Jersey, Arizona, Montana, and South Dakota – voted to legalize recreational cannabis in November. On top of that, voters in Mississippi backed the creation of a medical cannabis program.

In February, New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy signed legislation officially legalizing marijuana in the state. 

Though Canada legalized marijuana federally in 2018, the US has not followed suit, forcing states to chart their own courses. As it stands, marijuana is still considered an illegal Schedule I drug by the US federal government.

Joe Biden’s victory in the presidential election and the Democratic party’s control of Congress, could give marijuana a bigger boost in the US. The House in December voted on a bill to legalize marijuana and expunge the records of those convicted under previous laws, the Marijuana Opportunity Reinvestment and Expungement (MORE) Act, though the legislation was considered a nonstarter when Republicans controlled the Senate.

Cowen analyst Vivien Azer said in a January 6 note that with a Democratic-controlled government, cannabis-related legislation – like the STATES Act or MORE Act – has a better chance of passing through Congress, creating big opportunities for the US industry.

“[W]e expect Congress will give cannabis companies access to commercial banking and insurance,” Azer wrote. “We also see medical cannabis being protected. Capital markets access is largely dependent upon enactment of either the STATES Act or the MORE Act.” 

Biden has said he would support federal decriminalization of the drug. Vice-president-elect Kamala Harris sponsored a previous version of the MORE Act in the Senate. And, Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer has said that marijuana reform would be a priority for the Senate this year. 

Despite the political back-and-forth, most Americans want legal marijuana, according to recent polls. Sixty-seven percent of Americans polled by Pew Research said marijuana should be legal, with only 32% in opposition.

All the states where marijuana is legal: 

 

This article was first published in January 2018 and has been updated with new information about where cannabis is legal and the results from Georgia’s runoff elections. Melia Russell contributed to an earlier version of this report. 

Alaska

cannabis
A cannabis-testing laboratory in Santa Ana, California.

Adults 21 and over can light up in Alaska. In 2015, the northernmost US state made it legal for residents to use, possess, and transport up to an ounce of marijuana — roughly a sandwich bag full — for recreational use. The first pot shop opened for business in 2016.

Alaska has pounced on the opportunity to make its recreational-pot shops a destination for tourists. More than 2 million people visit Alaska annually and spend $2 billion.

Arizona

Curaleaf
Nate McDonald, General Manager of Curaleaf NY operations, talks about medical marijuana plants during a media tour of the Curaleaf medical cannabis cultivation and processing facility Thursday, Aug. 22, 2019, in Ravena, N.Y

Arizona in 2020 voted to legalize cannabis for all adults over the age of 21

The measure had support from almost 60% of Arizona voters, according to preliminary results from Decision Desk HQ. 

The ballot measure was backed by a number of cannabis giants, including Curaleaf, Cresco, and Harvest Enterprises. 

The Arizona Department of Health Services is required to lay out adult-use cannabis regulations by April 5, 2021.  

California

cannabis
A MedMen store in West Hollywood, California, on January 2, 2018.

In 1996, California became the first state to legalize medical marijuana. California became even more pot-friendly in 2016 when it made it legal to use and carry up to 1 ounce of marijuana.

The law also permits adults 21 and over to buy up to 8 grams of marijuana concentrates, which are found in edibles, and grow no more than six marijuana plants per household.

Colorado

marijuana
A marijuana leaf.

In Colorado, there are more marijuana dispensaries than Starbucks and McDonald’s combined. The state joined Washington in becoming the first two states to fully legalize the drug in 2012.

Residents and tourists over the age of 21 can buy up to 1 ounce of marijuana or 8 grams of concentrates. Some Colorado counties and cities have passed more restrictive laws.

Illinois

JB Pritzker
Illinois Gov. J.B. Pritzker.

Illinois lawmakers in June 2019 passed a bill that legalized the possession and commercial sale of marijuana in the state starting on January 1.

Gov. J.B. Pritzker, who made marijuana legalization a core component of his campaign for the governor’s office, signed the bill into law.

For its part, Illinois is the first state to legalize marijuana sales through a state legislature, rather than a ballot initiative.

Maine

marijuana
Harvested cannabis plants at Hexo Corp.’s facilities in Gatineau, Quebec, on September 26, 2018.

A ballot initiative in 2016 gave Maine residents the right to possess up to 2.5 ounces of marijuana, more than double the limit in most other states.

Recreational-marijuana dispensaries are set to open in Maine in October.

Massachusetts

cannabis
Medicinal cannabis cigarettes on July 12, 2018, at a cultivation facility in Milford, Massachusetts.

Massachusetts was the first state on the East Coast to legalize marijuana after voters approved the measure in 2016. 

Marijuana dispensaries opened their doors to consumers in November 2018. Adults over the age of 21 can purchase up to 1 ounce of marijuana but cannot consume it in public.

Michigan

marijuana
The Far West Holistic Center dispensary on November 7, 2018, in Detroit.

Voters in Michigan passed Proposition 1 in 2018, making it the first state in the Midwest to legalize the possession and sale of marijuana for adults over the age of 21. Adults can possess up to 2.5 ounces of marijuana, and residents can grow up to 12 plants at home.

The law is more permissive than other states with legal marijuana: Most allow residents to possess only up to 1 ounce at a time.

Marijuana dispensaries in Michigan opened on December 1.

Montana

Cannabis
A CPlant employee organizes a box of hemp for export at the company’s farm on the outskirts of Tala, Uruguay, Thursday, Aug. 13, 2020.

Montana in 2020 voted to legalize recreational marijuana for adults 21 and over

Montana residents will officially be allowed to use marijuana as of January 1, 2021. A year later, the state would begin to open up applications for dispensaries. 

New Jersey

cannabis
A CPlant employee trims a hemp flower for export at the company’s farm on the outskirts of Tala, Uruguay, Thursday, Aug. 13, 2020.

New Jersey in 2020 voted to legalize recreational marijuana for adults 21 and older, opening a market that could near $1 billion given New Jersey’s proximity to New York City and Philadelphia. 

In February, Gov. Phil Murphy signed the legalization legislation, after months of back-and-forth arguments about criminal penalties for minors possessing marijuana and the proper way to set up a licensing framework for cannabis sales in the state, among other details. Sales of cannabis for adult use could start in the second half of this year, analysts at Cowen said.

Nevada

marijuana recreational dispensary las vegas nevada
The Essence cannabis dispensary on July 1, 2017, in Las Vegas.

Residents and tourists who are 21 and over can buy 1 ounce of marijuana or one-eighth of an ounce of edibles or concentrates in Nevada. Less than two weeks after sales of recreational weed began on July 1, 2017, many stores ran out of marijuana to sell.

There’s bad news if you want to grow your own bud, though. Nevada residents must live 25 miles outside the nearest dispensary to be eligible for a grower’s license.

Oregon

marijuana cannabis cost Canada United States
Oregon’s Finest medical-marijuana dispensary in Portland, Oregon, on April 8, 2014.

Oregon legalized marijuana in 2015, and sales in the state started October 1 of that year. 

Sales in Oregon pot shops have exploded since legalization: They’re expected to top $1 billion by 2020, Portland Business Journal reported.

South Dakota

Aurora Cannabis
A team member of Aurora Cannabis works in the grow room at Aurora Sky cannabis growing greenhouse in Alberta, Canada, in this 2018 handout image.

South Dakota in 2020 voted to legalize both medical and recreational cannabis, the first time a state has voted in favor of both at the same time.

State lawmakers have until April 2o22 to create rules around cannabis, including regulations around dispensaries.  

Vermont

cannabis
Cannabis plants in a laboratory.

Vermont became the first state to legalize marijuana through the legislature, rather than a ballot initiative, when Republic Gov. Phil Scott signed a bill into law in January 2018.

Adults in the Green Mountain State can carry up to 1 ounce of marijuana and grow no more than two plants for recreational use. The law went into effect in July 2018. But it is limited in scope. It doesn’t establish a legal market for the production and sale of the drug, though the Vermont Legislature is working on adopting rules to create a recreational market.

Washington

medical marijuana
A medical-marijuana plantation on March 21, 2017.

Marijuana was legalized for recreational use in Washington in 2012.

The state allows people to carry up to 1 ounce of marijuana, but they must use the drug for medicinal purposes to be eligible for a grower’s license.

Washington, DC

Capitol Hill sunset

Residents in the nation’s capital voted overwhelmingly to legalize marijuana for adult use in November 2014.

The bill took effect in 2015, allowing people to possess 2 ounces or less of marijuana and “gift” up to an ounce, if neither money nor goods or services are exchanged.

Read the original article on Business Insider