These 8 charts show the glaring gap between men’s and women’s salaries in the US

town hall on gender and pay equity in Minneapolis
US Rep. Ilhan Omar poses for a photo with fellow panelists at a town hall meeting on gender pay gap and equity on April 24, 2019, in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

  • March 24 is Equal Pay Day, which reflects how many extra days women had to work to make as much as men did in 2020.
  • The gender wage gap persists, and women make 82 cents for every dollar a man makes.
  • These charts show the gap in pay varies widely based on location, race, and several other factors.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.
Men have earned more than women since 1979, the first year with available data.

Equal Pay Day reflects how many extra days women have to work to earn what men did in the previous year. This year’s Equal Pay Day falls on March 24. The Census Bureau wrote in a recent post that this is “earlier than it’s ever been since its inception in 1996,” suggesting a modest shrinking of the gender pay gap. 

Over half a century after the US passed the Equal Pay Act, American women still face a substantial gender wage gap across the spectrum. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research estimates that equal pay will not be reached until 2059.

Based on weekly earnings data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the gap has narrowed over time.

In the first quarter of 1979, median weekly earnings for men age 16 and over working full time was $408, compared to $251 for women. That is, women’s weekly earnings were 61.5% of men’s weekly earnings. There has been some progress over the years, and in the third quarter of 2020 women’s weekly earnings were 81.7% of men’s weekly earnings.

Overall, women who were full-time, year-round employees made 82.3 cents for every dollar men made in 2019, based on median earning data from the Census Current Population Survey. That means women are paid 17.7% less than men, earning $10,157 less than men.

The gender wage gap varies widely by state.

According to American Community Survey data from the US Census Bureau, the gender pay gap in the United States in 2019 was around 19%. This means that a woman who is at least 16 years old, working a full-time, year-round job, and who is part of the civilian employed population makes 81% as much as her male counterpart earns.

The pay gap varies, however, by state.

In Wyoming, for instance, the gender pay gap is 36.6%, the biggest wage gap in the nation based on those who are part of the “full-time, year-round civilian employed population 16 years and over with earnings” population. That is, median earnings of women who in this state make 63.4% of what men earn. In 33 states, the gender pay gap is larger than the national average.

Most states have implemented laws against gender discrimination, and the 1964 Civil Rights Act protects women at the federal level, yet disparities persist.

Vermont had the smallest pay gap in 2019 at 9%, with full-time, year-round women who are at least 16 and part of the civilian employed population making a median salary of $46,641, while men made $51,241.

Major cities show an even bigger discrepancy.

Around the US, salaries in large cities show an even greater range of pay discrepancy between men and women.

The American Association of University Women, a nonprofit that advocates for gender equality, examined how much women earn compared to men in 25 major metro areas using 2019 US Census data from the American Community Survey.

Out of the 25 cities, the narrowest gender wage gap overall is in Los Angeles, where women make approximately 90.6% of the median earnings for men, a pay gap of 9.4%. Detroit had the widest wage gap: Women’s median earnings of $44,486 in this city is 73.8% of men’s earnings of $60,278. That translates to a pay gap of 26.2%.

Overall, Black and Hispanic women face the biggest pay gap when comparing earnings to non-Hispanic white men.

Black and Hispanic women are most affected by the wage gap, especially when compared to non-Hispanic white men, who make up the largest demographic segment of the workforce.

We looked at the wage gap for different racial and ethnic groups using median earnings data for full-time, year-round workers from the US Census Bureau’s 2019 1-year American Community Survey.

Asian women face the smallest wage gap — they earn 91.4% of what non-Hispanic white men earned, resulting in a pay gap of just 8.5%. Non-Hispanic white women earn 78.1% of what non-Hispanic white men do, while Black women earn 61.1%. Hispanic women earn 53%, or a pay gap of 47%.

When compared to Black men, Black women earn 90.7% of what men earn, and Hispanic women make 80.6% of what Hispanic men do.

The larger disparity between non-Hispanic white men’s and women of color’s earnings could be attributed to the fact that “women of color suffer both because of their gender and their race,” according to an April 2016 report released by the Senate Joint Economic Committee’s Democratic Staff.

Another way of looking at that gap for women of different racial and ethnic groups is to consider when “equal pay day” for each group falls.

Number of days women have to work into the next year to earn as much as white men calendar graphic

Equal Pay Days further vary by race and ethnicity, in line with the pay discrepancies between non-Hispanic white men and women of different races and ethnicities.  

The above calendar graphic shows how many days into the next year a woman has to work in order to earn what a non-Hispanic white man would have earned in the previous year, using estimates from the American Association of University Women.

For example, a typical full-time, year-round employed Black female worker starting on January 1, 2020, would have finally earned on August 3, 2021, what a similarly employed non-Hispanic white male worker would have made over the course of 2020 alone. That means Black women have to work around seven extra months to earn the same as non-Hispanic men earned in a single year in 2020.

It takes full-time, year-round employed Asian American or Pacific Islander (AAPI) women the shortest time to make what non-Hispanic white men would have made the year before. It would take a female Asian American or Pacific Islander worker over two extra months in 2021, or until March 9, to earn what a non-Hispanic white man earned the year before.

However, pay gaps for Asian women vary further. Although AAPI women make 85 cents for every dollar non-Hispanic white men make, an analysis from the Center for American Progress finds Burmese woman makes just 52 cents for every dollar the median non-Hispanic white man makes, for instance.

Read more about equal pay day by race here.

Women with children gain no salary boost, while men with children are rewarded.

In 2015, women with children were earning roughly the same as women without children, $727 and $726 respectively. However, working fathers with children earned about $141 more than a men without children. 

That gap has slowly been closing since then, as 2019 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show that women with children now make slightly more than women without kids under 18 at home.

Men with children see an earnings boost, and the difference between their weekly take-home pay was typically $189 higher than their counterparts without kids in 2019.

For working women, the difference in earnings between women with and without children is minimal. Working mothers only made $30 compared to other working women in 2019.

While this disparity can be attributed to differences in careers and work hours between men and women who have children and those who do not, a 2016 report released by the Senate Joint Economic Committee Democratic Staff says that there is also a difference in how working mothers and fathers are perceived by management.

According to the report, some employers may view motherhood as a “signal of lower levels of commitment and professional competence.” Working fathers, on the other hand, may be viewed as having “increased work commitment and stability.”

Women’s earnings are lower than men’s over the course of a lifetime.

The gender pay gap exists for workers across a lifetime.

Using Census data from the Minnesota Population Center’s IPUMS program, we found that the median full-time, year-round male worker earns more than his female counterpart at every year of age.

The gap is narrower for younger workers, with the median 25-year-old woman earning about 91.1% of the median 25-year-old man. Meanwhile, the median 50-year-old woman earns just 76.9% of her 50-year-old male counterpart.

Women over the age of 75 are almost twice as likely to live in poverty, according to the Senate report. Many women that age didn’t work when they were younger, so they have fewer sources of retirement income than men their age.

In 1950, about 34% of American women were in the labor force, compared to about 86% of men, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. By 1980, the numbers were 52% and 77% respectively — and the numbers have largely plateaued since then.

Before the pandemic, the labor force participation rate for women was around 58% in February 2020 and around 56% in February 2021. The labor force participation rate for men was about 69% in February 2020 and about 67% in February 2021.

The number of women promoted to the highest levels within companies reveals unconscious biases.

Very few women are CEOs of major corporations, or in the C-level suite of executives running corporate America.

Data from a study put together by McKinsey & Co. and Lean In show how men are promoted up, while women fall by the wayside. Based on the latest report, only one in five C-level executives were women. Women of color are furthermore underrepresented at the executive level, making up less than 1 in 30 in the C-suite.

A recent IBM report also finds little change between leadership representation in 2019 and 2021. Based on the survey covering 10 industries from nine different regions, women made up just 10% of C-suite and 8% of executive board positions in 2019 and 2021.

The latest McKinsey report suggested that more women are working in senior positions, but it is still hard for women to move up from entry-level jobs into higher roles. “For every 100 men promoted to manager, only 85 women were promoted,” the report said, which affects the number of women being promoted to higher positions in the corporate pipeline.

However, women consistently ask for promotions and raises more. One of the reasons for the disparity between women asking for promotions and actually getting them was because when women negotiate, people like them less for it, according to a previous McKinsey study, covered by Insider, found.

Harvard Business Review found in its research that women ask for raises just as much as men, but men are more “successful” with their requests, with a success rate of 15% for women and 20% for men.

Read the original article on Business Insider

7 charts that show the glaring gap between men’s and women’s salaries in the US

town hall on gender and pay equity in Minneapolis
US Rep. Ilhan Omar poses for a photo with fellow panelists at a town hall meeting on gender pay gap and equity on April 24, 2019, in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

  • Not only is March Women’s History Month, but March 24 is Equal Pay Day for women.
  • Even though a lot of progress has been made, the gender wage gap persists.
  • That gap in pay varies widely based on location, race, and several other factors.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

March is not only Women’s History Month, where all the hard work and achievements of women are recognized, but March 24 marks this year’s Women’s Equal Pay Day.

The date refers to how many days into 2021 women had to work to make as much as men did in just 2020. Equal Pay Days further vary by race and ethnicity, in line with the pay discrepancies between non-Hispanic white men and women of different races and ethnicities.

And while women have gained important political power and some gains in the corporate pipeline, there is still work to be done to reach equality, especially when it comes to financial power.

Over half a century after the US passed the Equal Pay Act, American women still face a substantial gender wage gap across the spectrum. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research estimates that equal pay will not be reached until 2059.

Overall, women who were full-time, year-round employees made 82.3 cents for every dollar men made in 2019, based on median earning data from the Census Current Population Survey. That means women are paid 17.7% less than men, earning $10,157 less than men.

The seven charts below illustrate the significant pay discrepancies between men and women based on race, age, geographical location, and more.

The gender wage gap varies widely by state.

According to American Community Survey data from the US Census Bureau, the gender pay gap in the United States in 2019 was around 19%. This means that a woman who is at least 16 years old, working a full-time, year-round job, and who is part of the civilian employed population makes 81% as much as her male counterpart earns.

The pay gap varies, however, by state.

In Wyoming, for instance, the gender pay gap is 36.6%, the biggest wage gap in the nation based on those who are part of the “full-time, year-round civilian employed population 16 years and over with earnings” population. That is, median earnings of women who in this state make 63.4% of what men earn. In 33 states, the gender pay gap is larger than the national average.

Most states have implemented laws against gender discrimination, and the 1964 Civil Rights Act protects women at the federal level, yet disparities persist.

Vermont had the smallest pay gap in 2019 at 9%, with full-time, year-round women who are at least 16 and part of the civilian employed population making a median salary of $46,641, while men made $51,241.

Major cities show an even bigger discrepancy.

Around the US, salaries in large cities show an even greater range of pay discrepancy between men and women.

The American Association of University Women, a nonprofit that advocates for gender equality, examined how much women earn compared to men in 25 major metro areas using 2019 US Census data from the American Community Survey.

Out of the 25 cities, the narrowest gender wage gap overall is in Los Angeles, where women make approximately 90.6% of the median earnings for men, a pay gap of 9.4%. Detroit had the widest wage gap: Women’s median earnings of $44,486 in this city is 73.8% of men’s earnings of $60,278. That translates to a pay gap of 26.2%.

Overall, Black and Hispanic women face the biggest pay gap when comparing earnings to non-Hispanic white men.

Black and Hispanic women are most affected by the wage gap, especially when compared to non-Hispanic white men, who make up the largest demographic segment of the workforce.

We looked at the wage gap for different racial and ethnic groups using median earnings data for full-time, year-round workers from the US Census Bureau’s 2019 1-year American Community Survey.

Asian women face the smallest wage gap — they earn 91.4% of what non-Hispanic white men earned, resulting in a pay gap of just 8.5%. Non-Hispanic white women earn 78.1% of what non-Hispanic white men do, while Black women earn 61.1%. Hispanic women earn 53%, or a pay gap of 47%.

When compared to Black men, Black women earn 90.7% of what men earn, and Hispanic women make 80.6% of what Hispanic men do.

The larger disparity between non-Hispanic white men’s and women of color’s earnings could be attributed to the fact that “women of color suffer both because of their gender and their race,” according to an April 2016 report released by the Senate Joint Economic Committee’s Democratic Staff.

Another way of looking at that gap for women of different racial and ethnic groups is to consider when “equal pay day” for each group falls.

Number of days women have to work into the next year to earn as much as white men calendar graphic

The above calendar graphic shows how many days into the next year a woman has to work in order to earn what a non-Hispanic white man would have earned in the previous year, using estimates from the American Association of University Women.

Equal Pay Day for all women falls this year on March 24. This day falls much later in the year for some racial and ethnic groups.

For example, a typical full-time, year-round employed Black female worker starting on January 1, 2020, would have finally earned on August 3, 2021, what a similarly employed non-Hispanic white male worker would have made over the course of 2020 alone. That means Black women have to work around seven extra months to earn the same as non-Hispanic men earned in a single year in 2020.

It takes full-time, year-round employed Asian American or Pacific Islander (AAPI) women the shortest time to make what non-Hispanic white men would have made the year before. It would take a female Asian American or Pacific Islander worker over two extra months in 2021, or until March 9, to earn what a non-Hispanic white man earned the year before.

However, pay gaps for Asian women vary further. Although AAPI women make 85 cents for every dollar non-Hispanic white men make, an analysis from the Center for American Progress finds Burmese woman makes just 52 cents for every dollar the median non-Hispanic white man makes, for instance.

Read more about equal pay day by race here.

Women with children gain no salary boost, while men with children are rewarded.

In 2015, women with children were earning roughly the same as women without children, $727 and $726 respectively. However, working fathers with children earned about $141 more than a men without children. 

That gap has slowly been closing since then, as 2019 data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show that women with children now make slightly more than women without kids under 18 at home.

Men with children see an earnings boost, and the difference between their weekly take-home pay was typically $189 higher than their counterparts without kids in 2019.

For working women, the difference in earnings between women with and without children is minimal. Working mothers only made $30 compared to other working women in 2019.

While this disparity can be attributed to differences in careers and work hours between men and women who have children and those who do not, a 2016 report released by the Senate Joint Economic Committee Democratic Staff says that there is also a difference in how working mothers and fathers are perceived by management.

According to the report, some employers may view motherhood as a “signal of lower levels of commitment and professional competence.” Working fathers, on the other hand, may be viewed as having “increased work commitment and stability.”

Women’s earnings are lower than men’s over the course of a lifetime.

The gender pay gap exists for workers across a lifetime.

Using Census data from the Minnesota Population Center’s IPUMS program, we found that the median full-time, year-round male worker earns more than his female counterpart at every year of age.

The gap is narrower for younger workers, with the median 25-year-old woman earning about 91.1% of the median 25-year-old man. Meanwhile, the median 50-year-old woman earns just 76.9% of her 50-year-old male counterpart.

Women over the age of 75 are almost twice as likely to live in poverty, according to the Senate report. Many women that age didn’t work when they were younger, so they have fewer sources of retirement income than men their age.

In 1950, about 34% of American women were in the labor force, compared to about 86% of men, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. By 1980, the numbers were 52% and 77% respectively — and the numbers have largely plateaued since then.

Before the pandemic, the labor force participation rate for women was around 58% in February 2020 and around 56% in February 2021. The labor force participation rate for men was about 69% in February 2020 and about 67% in February 2021.

The number of women promoted to the highest levels within companies reveals unconscious biases.

Very few women are CEOs of major corporations, or in the C-level suite of executives running corporate America.

Data from a study put together by McKinsey & Co. and Lean In show how men are promoted up, while women fall by the wayside. Based on the latest report, only one in five C-level executives were women. Women of color are furthermore underrepresented at the executive level, making up less than 1 in 30 in the C-suite.

Since 2015, there’s been an increase in the share of women in the C-Suite, while women in lower-level management roles have seen a smaller increase since that year. 

A recent IBM report also finds little change between leadership representation in 2019 and 2021. Based on the survey covering 10 industries from nine different regions, women made up just 10% of C-suite and 8% of executive board positions in 2019 and 2021.

The latest McKinsey report suggested that more women are working in senior positions, but it is still hard for women to move up from entry-level jobs into higher roles. “For every 100 men promoted to manager, only 85 women were promoted,” the report said, which affects the number of women being promoted to higher positions in the corporate pipeline.

However, women consistently ask for promotions and raises more. One of the reasons for the disparity between women asking for promotions and actually getting them was because when women negotiate, people like them less for it, according to a previous McKinsey study, covered by Insider, found.

According to Lean In, women who negotiate are more likely than men who negotiate to receive feedback that they are “intimidating,” “too aggressive,” or “bossy.”

Another poll by American Express and The New York Women’s Foundation found that less than one-third of women were comfortable with calling themselves ambitious. According to psychologists interviewed by Insider, the reasoning behind this is that the word could be seen as aggressive.   

Harvard Business Review found in its research that women ask for raises just as much as men, but men are more “successful” with their requests, with a success rate of 15% for women and 20% for men.

Read the original article on Business Insider

Burger King apologizes for saying ‘women belong in the kitchen’ in a tweet advertising a new scholarship for female chefs

burger king
AP images

  • Burger King’s global chief marketing officer said he is sorry about how a company tweet came across.
  • The tweet, which read “women belong in the kitchen,” was a “mistake,” Burger King said.
  • Burger King launched a scholarship to help women get into the culinary arts and become head chefs.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

Burger King apologized for a tweet stating that “women belong in the kitchen” on Monday after receiving criticism on social media.

The fast-food chain tweeted the message on International Women’s Day as part of its launch of an initiative to help increase the number of women in head-chef roles. But many on Twitter said the company’s initial tweet, which was followed in a thread by an explanation of its initiative, was tone deaf. Some told the Burger King UK account to delete the tweet, and others vowed to not eat at the chain anymore.

Following the backlash, the company said in an emailed statement to Insider that, “Our tweet in the UK today was designed to draw attention to the fact that only a small percentage of chefs and head chefs are women. It was our mistake to not include the full explanation in our initial tweet and have adjusted our activity moving forward because we’re sure that when people read the entirety of our commitment, they will share our belief in this important opportunity.”

Read more: How RBI, parent of Burger King and Popeyes, is tapping into Clubhouse buzz by connecting users to execs and bringing ‘earnings calls’ to the masses

Global Chief Marketing Officer Fer Machado said on Twitter the company is “indeed sorry” about how the tweet came across. “The intention behind the activity is actually good. Taking it down would give even more attention to it. Believe it or not I deeply care about doing the right thing. Will do better nxt time,” he said.

In its emailed statement, the company said it is committed to helping women break through the male-dominated culinary culture in the world’s fine dining restaurants. It’s doing this by creating the Burger King Helping Equalize Restaurants, or HER, scholarship to support employees pursue a degree in culinary arts.

BurgerKing_IWD_PRImage_Newsprint_UpdatedScholarshipLine[2]

“This is a start in doing our small part to help women in the culinary field achieve their ultimate goal,” the company said in the press release, adding that women occupy only 7% of head-chef positions in restaurants.

Read the original article on Business Insider

Burger King’s ‘women belong in the kitchen’ tweet, meant to critique the male-dominated cooking industry, receives backlash on International Women’s Day

Burger King
AP

  • Burger King tweeted “women belong in the kitchen” to promote its new scholarship for female chefs.
  • The restaurant said it was drawing attention to the lack of female representation in culinary arts. 
  • Some on social media said the messaging was tone-deaf and vowed to not eat at the restaurant.
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

Burger King UK’s latest tweet saying, “women belong in the kitchen,” caused criticism on the social media site on Monday, which is International Women’s Day.  

 

The messaging wasn’t the work of a social media manager going rogue. It’s tied to the chain’s Monday launch of a new initiative to help narrow the gap of women in head chef roles, but the messaging struck people on Twitter and Facebook the wrong way.

BurgerKing_IWD_PRImage_Newsprint_UpdatedScholarshipLine[2]

Some expressed the tweet was tone-deaf on a day meant to celebrate women; others said they wouldn’t eat at the restaurant anymore, and others joked at how the fast-food chain’s marketing team thought the message would be a good idea.

One of Burger King’s competitors criticized the word choice. A Twitter account associated with KFC said Burger King should have deleted the tweet after sending it. The restaurant replied, “Why would we delete a tweet that’s drawing attention to a huge lack of female representation in our industry.”

Gender stereotypes are still alive today. In fact, people are even more likely to believe in traditional “female” roles, like cooking and cleaning, in today’s world as they were decades ago, according to a 2016 report from Women’s Health Magazine.

In her own response to the tweet, Chelsea Peretti, a comedian and actress from “Brooklyn Nine-Nine,” said “Burger King belongs in a trashcan.” Another unverified tweeter said the same thing. Still, the Burger King UK account added 10,000 followers Monday following the tweet.

On Facebook, people largely reacted with the laughing emoji. Several commenters said those who didn’t find it funny were soft, and others said there should have been a better way to promote the new initiative. 

Burger King did not immediately respond to Insider’s request for comment on the tweet.

Burger King echoed it’s “women belong in the kitchen” messaging in a bulletin and a press release, which added that “they belong in fine dining kitchens, food truck kitchens, BK Restaurant kitchens, award-winning kitchens, casual dining kitchens, and ghost kitchens.”

The fast-food chain said it’s creating the Burger King Helping Equalize Restaurants, HER, scholarship to support female team members pursuing a degree in culinary arts. “This is a start in doing our small part to help women in the culinary field achieve their ultimate goal,” the company said in a press release, adding that women occupy only 7% of head chef positions in restaurants. 

More than half of culinary graduates are women, but just 20% of working chefs are women, according to a 2019 story from Eater.com that cited US Labor Department statistics. The median pay for a chef was about $51,000 in 2019, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show.

Read the original article on Business Insider

How 11 women in science are working to combat the spread of COVID-19

Sara Bertran de Lis
A number of women are at the forefront of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • Female scientists are changing the game when it comes to the COVID-19 pandemic response.
  • From reducing mortality by 50% to studying virus replication, they may be able to end the pandemic.
  • For International Women’s Day, here are 11 women at the forefront of COVID-19 response. 
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

A number of women are at the forefront of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic, both at a Spanish and global level – from the first female president of the Spanish National Research Council to a researcher whose work in AI could reduce COVID-19 mortality by 50%.

In 2017, women occupied just 24% of STEM jobs.

While that percentage is slowly changing, there remain prominent gender gaps in STEM fields and women face more challenges than men in these sectors.

A study of 194 countries released last year suggested women-led countries handled the pandemic better than those led by men – and they’ve also played key roles in revolutionizing the pandemic response.

In celebration of International Women’s Day, here are 11 Spanish women who could hold the key to tackling COVID-19.

Sánchez-Felipe is researching a single-dose vaccine for long-term protection

lorena sanchez felipe 2239503
Sánchez-Felipe believes her vaccine could be especially vital in countries where yellow fever is still a problem.

Spanish researcher Lorena Sánchez-Felipe is working at the Rega Institute in Leuven, Belgium, to develop a vaccine that could change the course of the pandemic.

Her research group is creating a vaccine based on the yellow fever vaccine which carries a coronavirus antigen to train the immune system to recognize it. Sánchez-Felipe’s vaccine would protect people against both yellow fever and COVID-19.

She believes her vaccine could be especially vital in countries where yellow fever is still a problem and will also protect against COVID-19 in the long-term.

“We expect long-term immunity, given previous results we’ve seen with this type of vaccine,” Sánchez-Felipe told Business Insider España.

 

Sola is working on developing a COVID-19 vaccine in Spain

Isabel Sola
Isabel Sola has spent years researching the coronavirus family of infections.

Senior scientist and co-director of the coronavirus laboratory at the National Center for Biotechnology at the Spanish National Research Council, Isabel Sola, has spent years researching the coronavirus family of infections.

Sola is now working to develop a vaccine based on a smallpox virus and is created using a virus that has been genetically modified to retain its reproduction properties. It thus goes from cell to cell with a controlled dose acting as a vector.

“From our experience with similar coronaviruses, this vaccine is 100% effective,” Sola told Business Insider España.

 

Del Val is a virologist and coordinates the Global Health platform

Margarita del Val
Margarita del Val has been one of the most visible faces of the pandemic response in Spain.

Spanish National Research Council virologist Margarita del Val has been one of the most visible faces of the pandemic response in Spain.

The expert coordinates the 150 teams brought together by the council on a large multidisciplinary research platform called “Global Health.”

Among the tasks carried out by the platform are the improvement of COVID-19 diagnostic systems, and they have pioneered a system for testing wastewater to identify whether the virus is spreading in a community.

Del Val has also been carrying out educational work during the pandemic and has warned of the need to be cautious about future possible waves and other pandemics.

 

Fernández-Sesma researches immune responses to COVID-19

Screenshot 2021 03 08 at 14.06.15
Ana Fernández-Sesma is one of the five best-funded researchers by the National Institute of Health.

Ana Fernández-Sesma directs a laboratory at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York which studies how certain types of viruses modulate our immune system, with a special focus on dengue.

The research she conducts on dengue places her among the five best-funded researchers by the National Institute of Health (NIH) in the United States.

Fernández-Sesma told Business Insider España she aims to understand “what the virus does to evade barriers in a host and how the host protects itself.” Uncovering this could change the pandemic response, as our immune response to the virus has still not been fully understood.

She has also joined a group of researchers evaluating the immune system’s response to the virus in an effort to understand how it differs among patients.

 

Oliver is an AI expert working on predicting the evolution of the pandemic

Nuria Oliver
Nuria Oliver has established herself as one of the world’s leading artificial intelligence experts.

Nuria Oliver has established herself as one of the world’s leading artificial intelligence experts. In her capacity as authority-appointed high commissioner for AI in Valencia.

Oliver works with a research group that tries to communicate the real data of the pandemic to those in charge of making decisions.

The group tries to predict the behavior of the virus using different potential scenarios, answering key questions like how many people will be infected and modeling human mobility.

During the 2009 influenza pandemic in Mexico, Oliver analyzed aggregate data from cell phone networks to investigate the effectiveness of government measures.

She also spearheaded a macro-survey to assess the impact of the measures adopted during lockdown that has warned of the increased socialization in risky environments.

Marco leads a project that focuses on preparing for subsequent waves

Pilar Marco
Marco leads a team researching devices that can detect biomarkers of COVID-19 infection.

Spanish National Research Council professor Pilar Marco is the head of Nanobiotechnology for Diagnostics (Nb4D). The tool could revolutionize the pandemic response.

Marco leads a team researching devices that can simultaneously and rapidly detect several biomarkers of COVID-19 infection.

These quick detection diagnostic systems could prepare the world better for any future outbreaks of COVID-19.

Rodríguez is improving diagnoses and treatments through AI at IBM

Screenshot 2021 03 08 at 14.11.44
The computational biologist works with IBM.

Astrophysics and cosmology specialist María Rodriguez uses her knowledge of quantitative technical tools to help doctors provide better diagnoses and suggest individual treatments.

The computational biologist works with IBM applying artificial intelligence to the healthcare sector, focusing on integrating high-throughput molecular datasets to build comprehensive models of disease.

This sector could transform the treatment of cancer and immune and degenerative diseases, Rodriguez told Business Insider España.

García Vidal is working on an AI solution that could cut mortality in COVID-19 patients by 50%

Screenshot 2021 03 08 at 14.13.22
García Vidal’s technique could reduce patient mortality rates by 50%.

Head of the Covid Digital Control Center at the Hospital Clínic in Barcelona, Dr. Carolina García Vidal, is leading one of the 207 projects named by the European Institute of Innovation as providing a better response to the healthcare crisis.

García Vidal’s initiative uses artificial intelligence to monitor the evolution of patient systems, anticipating the worsening of the disease.

Her technique could reduce patient mortality rates by 50% according to findings published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Silleras became a developer to fight the pandemic

Screenshot 2021 03 08 at 14.14.32
Rocío Silleras was one of 40 students selected for the final part of Samsung’s DesarrollAdoras course.

Rocío Silleras was one of 40 students selected for the final part of Samsung’s DesarrollAdoras course, focused on artificial intelligence and big data.

After the program, Silleras joined the multidisciplinary team led by Dr. Joaquín López Herraiz, from the Universidad Computense de Madrid.

The team was tackling the development of a tool to identify infectious diseases.

Their project, which won the UNESCO hackathon #CodeTheCurve, studies X-rays with artificial intelligence to detect COVID-19.

Bertrán de Lis is a data scientist at Johns Hopkins University’s Centers for Civic Impact

Sara Bertran de Lis
Data scientist Sara Bertrán de Lis works at the John Hopkins University Civic Impact Center.

Data scientist Sara Bertrán de Lis works at the John Hopkins University Civic Impact Center and previously worked as a trainee at the European Space Agency.

Bertrán de Lis works on collecting data as part of a map that acts as an international reference for analyzing the impact of the coronavirus pandemic.

Rosa Menéndez is the first female president of the Spanish National Research Council

Rosa Menendez
Rosa Menéndez became the first female president in the 80-year history of the Spanish National Research Council.

In 2017, Rosa Menéndez became the first female president in the 80-year history of the Spanish National Research Council.

An organic chemistry graduate from the University of Oviedo, Menéndez is confident that the council will produce the first Spanish vaccine to fight COVID-19, with reports suggesting it could be ready by the end of 2022.

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A top exec at Wells Fargo shares the career moves that helped her crack the glass ceiling

Lisa McGeough
Lisa McGeough says being the CEO of your career means you actively take control of it, rather than passively waiting for success to come your way.

  • Lisa McGeough, head of international banking at Wells Fargo, shared how she broke the glass ceiling. 
  • Deloitte research from 2019 shows that women hold only 22% of leadership roles in finance.
  • The glass ceiling is the set of obstacles women face when trying to ascend to top corporate positions. 
  • Visit the Business section of Insider for more stories.

When Lisa McGeough first walked onto the fixed income trading floor at Salomon Brothers (which was later acquired by Citi) in 1984, she was one of about 12 women in her class. There were more than some 65 men. 

McGeough, then 21, quickly learned she was in a man’s world. And the odds were not in her favor. 

Over the years, she’d experience numerous microaggressions from her male colleagues.  

“Girls can’t trade.” 

“You’re so good at note-taking.” 

“I didn’t know you were interested in golf.”

But she refused to let them get to her. Today, McGeough holds one of the highest positions in finance. She leads Wells Fargo’s international banking operations, which encompasses all the businesses across the Americas, Asia Pacific and Europe, Middle East, and Africa. 

“It was a tough place, the trading floor,” McGeough told Insider. “But that’s where I developed my resilience because I was not able to change the culture. I had to adapt to the culture, and survive the culture, and then thrive within the culture.” 

There’s been progress toward gender equality since the 1980s. Social norms have changed. The recent #MeToo movement has forced leaders to take a hard look at sexual harassment and the lack of women in leadership within their own walls. 

The Civil Rights Act of 1991, for example, gave people suing for workplace discrimination more rights and forced employers to take claims more seriously. 

Yet, at the same time, many things have remained the same. Executive positions are still mostly occupied by white men. Out of all the CEOs on the Fortune 500 list, only about 37 are women. There are only 6 black CEOs. 

There’s still a glass ceiling, a set of barriers women face when trying to climb the corporate ladder and make it into the C-suite. According to Deloitte research from 2019, women hold only 22% of leadership roles in finance. While it’s expected to grow, to 32% by 2030, that’s still well below parity.  

Approximately 48% of senior leaders at Wells Fargo are women, according to company data provided to Insider. Some 25% are racially or ethnically diverse and 9% are Black. 

Industry leaders like Salesforce and Amazon still wrestle with workplace discrimination, according to reports. And businesses across a range of industries show disappointing diversity numbers when it comes to their executive leadership. 

This is despite women holding 50% of entry-level positions, according to 2019 research from McKinsey and LeanIn. 

McGeough cracked the ceiling, though. For International Women’s Day, she reflected on how she did it. 

Learning the value of hard work 

McGeough said she’ll never forget visiting her immigrant grandparents. Her grandmother, who emigrated from Italy, worked two jobs – one at a men’s tailor shop and another at a local garden. She’d come home, pick food from the family’s garden in their backyard, cook dinner, and then would routinely stay up until nearly 3 a.m. sewing clothes for the family. 

McGeough’s parents, who owned an IT company in Chicago, encouraged her and her three younger siblings to work hard in school and in life. 

“It’s been in my psyche for my whole life, watching them as role models and how hard they worked,” she said. “Hard work, focused dedication, and resilience are the things that I got from them.” 

McGeough attended Bowdoin College in Maine, graduating with a degree in economics. Shortly after, she began a three-year career at Salomon Brothers. 

She worked hard to make it in the cut-throat world of finance, facing constant microaggressions and bosses who didn’t believe in her abilities. 

But she stayed determined. 

“No, one’s going to knock me out,” she’d tell herself. “No, one’s going to win. I am going to be the one that’s going to. I’m going to survive and I’m going to thrive.”  

Hard work alone, however, didn’t make her an executive, she said. 

“There is no fairy godmother. There’s no person who’s going to just notice you and pull you into a high level role,” she said.  

Be the CEO of your career

Lisa McGeough
McGeough said women and people from underrepresented groups should have a team of people who know their hard work and can advocate for them in rooms where decisions are being made.

Women and other professionals from underrepresented groups have to be more active about how they plan their career growth, she told Insider.  

Her philosophy boils down to a simple catchphrase: “Be the CEO of your career.” 

In other words, take charge of your career, as a CEO would take charge of their company. Actively advocate for yourself.

For example, do not assume your manager or your manager’s manager will notice your hard work, she said. Keep track of your progress, she said, and bring it up in meetings, especially when it comes time to performance reviews.

Make sure your career has a “board of directors,” or a group of people who can help you along the way and advocate for you. 

“It’s not just your boss. It’s your clients, a lateral manager, mentors or sponsors,” she said. 

They can advocate for you when you’re not in the rooms where decisions are being made. 

By having a board of directors, McGeough said she was recommended for roles that other women were passed up for. 

Know when to move and look for new opportunities 

Women have to know when to leave a job where they can no longer grow.

For McGeough, that happened when she had a manager who insisted she go home to take care of her kids instead of offering her the opportunity to cover clients who required extensive travel. This was despite her insistence she was the family’s breadwinner. 

After that experience she knew she had to get out.

Career progress often isn’t a straight path, but rather a series of lateral moves, she said. Some of those moves happened when she saw an opportunity, raised the issue with leadership, and pitched herself for the role. 

“I raised my hand to do something very hard that no one else was doing. And there was a very large gap in this particular role that I observed,” she said. “Take risks, be uncomfortable.” 

Now, as a leader, she actively advocates for up-and-coming talent, especially women and those from underrepresented backgrounds. 

“How do I advocate for this talented woman or diverse person on my team to give them the visibility that they need? Because I’ve experienced what they’re experiencing now. How do I create a diverse leadership team?” 

Those are questions she says more leaders should be thinking about, she said. 

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