Habitat for Humanity has partnered with Alquist, a 3D-printing home construction company, to create a 3D-printed home in Williamsburg, Virginia in an attempt to address the US housing crisis.
This isn’t Habitat for Humanity’s first 3D-printing rodeo. In mid-June, the nonprofit announced it would be using Germany-based Peri’s COBOD “build on-demand printer” – or the BOD2 – to 3D print a home in Tempe, Arizona.
“When we consider the housing issues facing Arizona, the need for affordable homeownership solutions becomes clear,” Jason Barlow, president and CEO of Habitat Central Arizona, said in the press release at the time. “If we can deliver decent, affordable, more energy-efficient homes at less cost, in less time and with less waste, we think that could be a real game-changer.”
Now, Habitat for Humanity Peninsula and Greater Williamsburg is bringing this 3D printing mission to the East Coast with the help of Alquist, which will begin constructing and printing the home’s walls later this month. Similar to Peri, Alquist is partners with COBOD, according to Alquist’s website.
Now, let’s take a peek around the upcoming 3D printed home
Like other 3D printing home companies, Alquist’s printing system uses concrete, creating a time and money-saving method of construction, according to the press release. The concrete also insulates the home while making it tornado and hurricane resistant.
When it’s complete, the 3D-printed home will stand at 1,200 square feet with its three bedrooms and two bathrooms. It’ll also be EarthCraft certified, which means the unit will be both green and energy efficient.
Like other Habitat for Humanity homes, the project will be built by volunteers, sponsors, and people who want to purchase the final unit.
In this case, a person named April and her family of three will purchase this 3D-printed home. From there, her zero-interest mortgage, taxes, and insurance will be about 30% of her income, which is already 80% lower than her community’s median income level, according to the press release.
“We’ve seen firsthand how Habitat for Humanity’s housing program provides an enhanced quality of life for families,” Janet Green, Habitat for Humanity Peninsula and Greater Williamsburg’s CEO, said in the press release. “We are so excited to be constructing a 3D home for this family and help them achieve their dream of homeownership.”
Big Tech knows there’s a housing crisis – if the millions of dollars they’re donating to affordable housing is any indication.
Apple said on Wednesday that it has poured $1 billion into housing development efforts in Northern California, including the San Francisco Bay Area, as part of a broader $2.5 billion initiative that it kicked off in late 2019.
And Amazon said on Tuesday that it’s giving Virginia’s Arlington County $40 million worth of unused land to build 550 new, affordable housing units. The e-commerce giant is currently constructing its second headquarters in the county.
Big Tech has long come under fire for moving into communities whose members are later priced out by companies’ high-earning workers. And although subsequent housing crises are caused by a number of factors, the tech companies contribute to many of those issues.
A record number of millennials wanted to buy homes in 2020, but the real estate market can’t keep up.
So finds financial services company First American, which measures potential homeownership demand based on lifestyle, societal, and economic factors in what it calls its Homeownership Progress Index (HPRI). When potential homeownership demand exceeds the actual homeownership rate, it signifies that external forces are suppressing housebuying.
Its new report reveals that potential homeownership demand has surpassed the homeownership rate since 2010, following the aftermath of the Great Recession. But the difference between the two hit an all-time high during the pandemic. Demand rose from 68.8% the year prior to 70.21% in 2020, while the national homeownership rate grew from 64.7% to 66.7%.
Contrary to the popular narrative that millennials can’t afford to a buy a house because they spend too much money on avocado toast, there are more millennials trying to become homeowners than there are houses available.
But as the generation became more financially stable with age, its potential homeownership demand has increased by 3.5 percentage points year-over-year, per First American. That’s more than any other generation. The majority of millennials turned 30 in 2020 and the oldest turn 40 this year, signifying they’ve reached the peak age for first-time homeownership.
“We’ve been underbuilding for years,” Gay Cororaton, the director of housing and commercial research for the National Association of Realtors (NAR), told Insider at the end of April. She said the US had been about 6.5 million homes short since 2000, then facing a two-month supply of homes that should look more like a six-month supply. Because of this, she added, homeownership is “going to be more difficult for millennials.”
Daryl Fairweather, the chief economist at Redfin, added that there have been 20 times fewer homes built in the past decade than in any decade as far back as the 1960s. She said it’s not enough homes for millennials, who are the biggest generation, to buy.
The imbalance has propelled housing costs to several record highs, resulting in bidding wars nearly everywhere nationwide, with competing bidders throwing down all-cash bids and higher down payments. It’s become millennials’ second housing crisis during their adulthoods.
Skyrocketing prices have pushed homeownership out of reach for many millennials, despite some of their peers leading the housing recovery. While the wealthier cohort of the millennials may be better positioned to buy a home, even those who successfully managed to scrape together some savings are facing dwindling chances of homeownership.
But millennials will be driving the housing market for years to come. As Odeta Kushi, deputy chief economist at First American, wrote in the report, “While millennial homeownership has been delayed relative to their generational predecessors, millennials now have the greatest influence on the housing market and remain poised to fuel a ‘roaring 20s’ of homeownership demand.”
But this increased demand from millennials in an era of remote work, coupled with a lumber shortage and the fact that contractors have been underbuilding over the past dozen years, has exacerbated a shrinking housing inventory, with record-high prices for remaining houses.
As bidding wars rife with all-cash offers and higher down payments heat up the market, many millennials face the second housing crisis of their adulthoods.
There have been 20 times fewer homes built in the past decade than in any decade as far back as the 1960s, Daryl Fairweather, chief economist at Redfin, previously told Insider. Data from Freddie Mac shows that the housing shortfall has led to a decline in entry-level homes – the ones most affordable for millennials.
Freddie Mac defines an entry-level home as one under 1,400 square feet. Its data reveals that the current supply sits at a 50-year low. In the late 1970s, about 418,000 entry-level homes were built on average per year. In 2020, only 65,000 entry-level homes were built, even though 2.38 million first-time homebuyers purchased a home that year.
“There just aren’t enough of these homes to fulfill the demand,” Ed Pinto, director of the American Enterprise Institute, recently told The Wall Street Journal. “It’s creating this ‘Great American Land Rush,’ as I call it. People are moving around and there’s tremendous demand, but the inventory is down.”
They were already contending with a dwindling starter home supply back then.
In 2018, starter homes represented just 20.9% of available housing inventory in the US, according to Trulia. And a Realtor.com report at the end of 2019 predicted that while low interest rates would make it easier for millennials to buy, a shortage of entry-level homes would prove to be a major obstacle, largely because newbuilds that year were mostly devoted to “upper-tier housing” that cost at least $500,000.
Now, the pandemic and its consequent recession have added fuel to the fire just as millennials were finally recovering from their accumulated economic woes. “Now that they have economically recovered and are looking to buy a home for the first time, we’re faced with this housing shortage,” Fairweather told Insider. “They’re already boxed out of the housing market.”
Are you a millennial feeling shut out of the housing market? Email this reporter at firstname.lastname@example.org.
America may be running out of houses, but young adults are continuing to set their sights on homeownership.
More than half of them (59%) said they plan to use their pandemic savings on a down payment for a home, according to a recent Zillow survey that polled over 1,200 millennials and Gen Zers. It was the most common answer beyond using their savings for everyday living expenses.
“Even in an unprecedented global pandemic, homeownership still appears to be a priority and aspiration among the sometimes called ‘rent forever generation,'” the report reads.
The survey found that 83% of young adults reported saving money in at least one category during the pandemic. This cohort found themselves on the upside of the millennial wealth gap that the pandemic exacerbated.
Lower-income millennials who were already contending with an affordability crisis had little to fall back on as they experienced job loss and pay cuts. But a higher-earning group with stable income was able to save and invest money they would have otherwise spent in non-pandemic times.
Interest rates hit a historical low in 2020, making it easier for those with enough money saved for a down payment to buy a home. But the combination with the year when many were working from home soon led to a cutthroat housing market, marked by a historic housing shortage and lumber scarcity which both propelled housing costs to several record highs. That has resulted in bidding wars nearly everywhere nationwide, with competing bidders throwing down all-cash bids and higher and higher down payments.
Many millennials able to snag a house did so by paying above market price, while others saw homeownership pushed further out of reach as housing prices skyrocketed and morphed into an inventory crisis.
As Insider’s Ben Winck reported, the lumber shortage has largely made it too expensive to for builders to construct more homes. Housing starts fell nearly 10% through April after surging the month prior, signaling supply won’t bounce back all that soon. Lumber has come down somewhat since from its super-expensive level, though.
Considering that millennials have just reached peaked homebuying age, and some Gen Zers are already househunting, young adults will be driving the housing market for years to come. This survey suggests that wealthier members of both generations will put their pandemic savings toward down payments, so the unequal housing boom may not abate any time soon.
Whether they will be able to find an available house is another question.
… designed in partnership with luxury architecture firm Candelaria Design.
According to Habitat for Humanity, 3D printing could be an economical way to address said crisis.
“When we consider the housing issues facing Arizona, the need for affordable homeownership solutions becomes clear,” Jason Barlow, president and CEO of Habitat Central Arizona, said in the press release.
“If we can deliver decent, affordable, more energy-efficient homes at less cost, in less time and with less waste, we think that could be a real game-changer,” Barlow continued.
Homebuilding methods like 3D printing or prefabrication are increasingly being considered as feasible alternatives to “traditional” construction.
Using a 3D printer to create homes is often seen as a more efficient and sustainable alternative to traditional construction methods.
“In addition to affordable homes, the market increasingly demands innovative housing concepts,” Yasin Torunoglu, the housing and spatial development alderman at the municipality of Eindhoven, said in regards to a different 3D-printed home in the Netherlands.
In total, the home will sit at 2,433 square feet, but its living space will fall a bit shorter at 1,738 square feet.
All of this space will then accommodate three bedrooms and two bathrooms.
“Beyond our city borders, this project can serve as a model for other communities as we all work to meet the critical needs of families who truly are the faces of this growing housing affordability crisis,” Corey Woods, the mayor of Tempe, said in the press release.
On April 30, a Dutch couple began calling a 3D printed concrete house their home.
The home is based in Eindhoven in the Netherlands.
It’s the first of five 3D-printed homes under “Project Milestone,” a collaboration between the Eindhoven University of Technology, the municipality, industry experts, architects, and several private companies.
Project Milestone serves as the world’s first 3D-printed concrete “commercial housing project,” according to its maker.
… especially because the precise printer used in Project Milestone uses less concrete than traditional construction methods.
Aesthetics-wise, the printer can also create a more creative and non-traditional home, as seen with this new boulder-shaped house.
“In addition to affordable homes, the market increasingly demands innovative housing concepts,” Yasin Torunoglu, the housing and spatial development alderman at the municipality of Eindhoven, said in a press release.
City officials first scouted the teardrop-shaped infill lot when they were looking for a place to build “bridge” homes, or shelters meant to aid in finding unhoused residents a permanent home.
Now, 43 residents call the Chandler Street Tiny Home Village their (temporary) home, just a few months after the community’s February grand opening.
Lehrer Architects, which designed the tiny home community with the city’s Bureau of Engineering, had a $3.49 million budget for the project. But foundational work – including street leveling and sewer lines – became the most expensive component of the project.
Despite this cost, the beta project’s shelters “add real value” to the once vacant lot, according to Lehrer Architects.
After being temperature checked by a guard at the entrance of the community, I walked past a series of lockers into the fenced village.
The lockers are meant to secure the residents’ items that aren’t allowed inside of the village, whether it be drugs or personal defense weapons, Vansleve told me while we toured the Alexandria Park location.
An outdoor smoking area and the restroom facilities with showers sit right across from the entrance.
From there, I turned the corner and was immediately greeted by the line-up of tiny homes, an outdoor seating area, and shipping container-like buildings.
The shipping container-like buildings make up the communal facilities, which include a laundry room. It’s also where the case workers are located.
The village also offers its residents three meals a day here.
The outdoor communal tables are located right next to these facilities and in front of the small dog park, which sits at the center of the village.
Surrounding these public amenities are the tiny homes.
Several of these tiny homes have already been personalized with flowers, flags, and posters.
Each tiny home has an entry door that can be locked, a luxury some of the residents might not have had prior.
“Achieving this level of privacy and security is not possible in a traditional shelter,” Michael Lehrer and Nerin Kadribegovic, Lehrer Architects’ founding partner and partner, respectively, told Insider in an email interview in February. “The evocation of a child’s drawing of a ‘house’ and even Monopoly’s homes reinforces the idea of ‘home.'”
The interior has all of the basic amenities needed to live in a tiny home in Los Angeles, including a bed, a heater …
… an air conditioning unit, windows, shelves, and a desk.
The units were all created by Washington-based Pallet, which specializes in creating prefab tiny homes that can be quickly assembled to create homes for people who may have been unhoused due to natural or personal disasters.
“What we felt was really missing from the housing spectrum was a dignified shelter option that honored their individuality and allowed them to have autonomy in their rehabilitation process,” Amy King, founder and CEO of Pallet, told Insider in January.
However, it wasn’t the community’s bright colors that caught my attention. It was the people.
The village’s residents were friendlier than my own neighbors: almost every person I walked by smiled and said “hello.”
And before I left, I had a chat with someone in the village who told me about their daughter, son in college, and interest in other cultures.
The conversation reminded me of something Vansleve told me during our chat at the new Alexandria Park location: “I look at people on the street [in their late 60s, early 70s] and some of them could be my mum. They’ve experienced incredible amounts of trauma and they’re left on the street. I think it’s a moral issue.”
Think of Chandler Street Tiny Home Village as a transitioning place for its residents.
The goal of the village, and Hope of the Valley’s upcoming sites, is to provide its residents with stability and a temporary home while helping them eventually transition into more permanent housing.
When a new resident arrives, the community’s employees, which include case workers, will help the new individual with a list of personal needs.
“Here it’s more supportive, more in-depth,” Priscilla Rodriguez, a case manager at the Chandler Street Tiny Home Village, told Insider. “When somebody comes in, they could be at the very beginning.”
From there, case workers will help the residents receive necessary paperwork like an ID, a social security card, or a birth certificate.
The team will also help its residents find income. This could be unemployment benefits at first, but will hopefully lead to a job or Supplemental Security Income.
The case workers even help with life skills, which could include teaching them how to keep their tiny homes clean or encouraging them to bathe everyday.
Workers will also connect the residents to doctors and physicians for both mental and physical healthcare.
“Some of them wanted to bring their tents into their home because they’re not used to coming out of that setting and transitioning back into permanent housing,” Rodriguez said.
This is the “transition” case workers like Rodriguez are trying to help with.
“They are going to be housed on their own one day, and we want to help support them in every way so that way when they get there, they feel confident to be there and to keep that house on their own,” Rodriguez said.
The program lasts for 90 days, but can be extended for an additional 90 days if they find the resident is making good headway and improvements, and is “actively working” with the case managers to meet goals.
“All we need from them is just to connect with us,” Rodriguez said. “Just tell us what you need.”
Every resident in this current batch has already received an extension because the village and program is so new. But moving forward, the goal is for residents to meet the 90-day timeline.
Each resident gets to dictate the pace at which they move, and right now, many of them are showing “tremendous progress.”
The majority of the 43 residents currently being housed at the Chandler site are on track to be housed independently, which is the ultimate goal of the program.
“We really are showing that the program is working,” Rodriguez said.
In order to qualify for a bed at the village, an outreach worker, often from the Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority, has to verify that the potential resident is homeless and resides within a few miles of the village.
The Chandler site has been so popular there’s already a waitlist for the beds.
The team will accept anyone into the village, even if they have substance abuse or mental health issues, physical disabilities, or legal problems.
“We’re just people who were trying to help these participants better their life,” Rodriguez said. “They’re not trying to harm the community in any way, they’re trying to get themselves back into that community.”
And despite the ongoing pandemic, the Chandler Street Tiny Home Village hasn’t had any COVID-19 outbreaks.
The tiny homes each typically shelter up to two people, but due to the virus, only couples are allowed to share a unit.
And every one to two weeks, the village offers COVID-19 testing on-site.
Several residents have already received their first round of vaccines as well.
Many of the residents have also been complying with face mask wearing, social distancing, and sanitizing protocols, according to Rodriguez.
Despite the work Chandler Street is doing for the homeless community, the program has experienced some protests and hecklers.
The hecklers “just want to cause a scene saying we’ve got drug addicts and criminals in here,” according to Rodriguez.
“It’s sad to see the pushback because any one of us could be here at any point,” Rodriguez said. “You never know what it’s gonna take to make you homeless, especially during a covid year.”
Despite this, the village and its program has so far been a success, and has already attracted international attention.
As a “test case” for future tiny home communities, and since most residents are on track to be permanently housed, the concept has served as an inspiration for people around the world.
The Chandler site has even seen out-of-country visitors who have been interested in incorporating a similar idea in their own city or state.
“It’s making a big impact,” Rodriguez said. “They see that we have had a lot of success with this program, so I definitely see it expanding … hopefully all over the country and in other nations as well.”
Los Angeles’ homelessness crisis has been quietly brewing for several years now.
To address this issue, nonprofit Hope of the Valley Rescue Mission has opened two colorful tiny home villages in the city this year: Chandler Street and the newer Alexandria Park.
The villages aren’t meant to house millennial tourists or trendy minimalists interested in tiny living.
Instead, the two communities were built to temporarily house Los Angeles’ unhoused residents.
This serves as an alternative to “congregate” shelters that can often be more expensive and less time-efficient to construct.
The goal of Hope of the Valley’s tiny house program is to help its residents find a permanent home by the end of their stay.
The program starts at 90 days with the option to extend for an additional three months depending on the progress of the resident, Priscilla Rodriguez, a caseworker at the Chandler Street Tiny Home Village, told Insider.
The two villages are about two miles away from each other and were opened only two months apart.
The first tiny home village on Chandler Blvd. (pictured below), opened in February as a “test case” for Los Angeles, Rowan Vansleve, CFO of Hope of the Valley Rescue Mission, told Insider.
The North Hollywood-based community has 40 tiny homes and 75 beds, but as of now, only couples are allowed to share a unit due to COVID-19 protocols.
So far, the program has been a success, according to Rodriguez.
The village’s on-site caseworkers help the residents with a variety of tasks, from obtaining a social security card, to finding income, to teaching them life skills, such as how to keep their tiny homes clean.
“Some people come here and they’re used to being in a tent and not having their own space,” Rodriguez said. “They’re going to be housed one day on their own, and we want to support them in every way so when they get there, they feel confident to be there and to keep that house on their own.”
Many of the residents at this first site have already made “huge progress,” and the majority of the community’s 43 occupants are already on track to be housed independently, according to Rodriguez.
Now, Hope of the Valley is looking to continue this success with its latest tiny home community just a short drive away from the original Chandler site.
The new Alexandria Park Tiny Home Village is the largest tiny home community in California, according to the nonprofit.
The new site, which is also located in North Hollywood, is over double the size of the original Chandler location with 103 tiny homes and 200 beds.
The new community will begin welcoming its first round of residents this week.
The Alexandria Park and Chandler Street sites are both filled with 64-square-foot shelters made by Washington-based Pallet, which specializes in building tiny homes for people who have been unhoused due to natural or personal disasters.
Like any typical home, the shelters have a lockable entry door.
A locking door may seem like a no-brainer for most people, but many of the communities’ residents may not have previously had this security measure.
This sense of privacy and security isn’t possible in a “traditional” congregate shelter, Michael Lehrer and Nerin Kadribegovic, Lehrer Architects’ founding partner and partner, respectively, told Insider in an email interview in February. Lehrer Architects designed the Chandler site with the Los Angeles Bureau of Engineering.
“Ethically and morally for people who’ve experienced trauma, having a locking door can sometimes become the difference between accepting help getting off the street and making a step towards permanent supportive housing,” Rowan Vansleve, CFO of Hope of the Valley Rescue Mission, told Insider.
A 64-square-foot space may seem small, but it has enough room to accommodate all of the unit’s amenities, which include temperature controls like an air conditioner and heater …
… lights that can be used when the four windows don’t provide enough natural brightness …
… and outlets.
The beds are topped with a navy blue duvet, which is meant to invoke a calm feeling, according to Vansleve.
There’s also a small desk, a smoke detector for an added layer of security …
… and storage space underneath the bed frames.
The new Alexandria Park tiny homes also come with toiletries bags customized for men and women.
Several of the new shelters’ furnishings are sourced from Hope of the Valley’s five donation and thrift shops located throughout the greater Los Angeles region.
Several residents who have been living at the Chandler location have already made themselves at home with plants, posters, and artwork.
The tiny homes either come with one or two beds, and some of the single-bed units have enough space to accommodate a wheelchair.
The shelters don’t have room for a private restroom, but both communities have shared individual bathrooms that each come with a sink, toilet, and shower.
Same goes for laundry, which can be done at the sites’ communal laundry facilities.
Pallet’s shelters typically have a lifespan of over 10 years, and the units can be easily disassembled and reassembled, according to Pallet.
But external costs such as sewage, electricity, and internet bumped the cost of each bed at the Alexandria Park location up to about $43,000.
“It doesn’t feel like a homeless shelter, it feels like a launching pad,” Vansleve said about the Alexandria Park Tiny Home Village. “As you walk through, it almost has a college dorm sort of vibe to it, which is exciting.”
But unlike other prefab modular home makers, Connect Homes builds its units the same way Apple creates its phones and Tesla manufactures its vehicles: by “understanding every stakeholder and every piece along the journey,” Greg Leung, Connect Homes’ CEO, told Insider.
Leung, who has been Connect Homes’ CEO for about half a year, previously spent 12 years at Apple overseeing its global supply chain planning and management. Despite the obvious differences between Apple and Connect Homes, Leung says his experience at the tech giant – and a previous smart home tech startup – has lent itself to turning Connect Homes and the prefab home industry into one that can more frequently produce higher quality houses while using less time and money.
“Imagine you were to approach building a house the way Apple would approach building a product … from an end-to-end standpoint,” Leung explained. “By thinking about it from that standpoint, you’re able to optimize and make decisions that allow the entire thing to work seamlessly for the end consumer, and for [the process] to actually run efficiently and effectively.”
For prefab homes makers, this execution could be the difference between being a niche home builder or a “game-changer” that could replace “traditional construction in many use cases,” Leung said.
And for Connect Homes, the goal is to become a key national home builder.
“Prefab has been around for decades, and it has overpromised and under-delivered because prefab in and of itself is not the answer, it’s a technique that’s used to address the problem [of our housing crisis],” Leung said.
Creating a Connect Home
Connect’s rising popularity is undeniable. The company saw the most bookings in its history during the second quarter of 2020. Now, it’s looking like this year’s first quarter will beat last year’s fourth-quarter numbers, and the upcoming second quarter is already on track to surpass this quarter.
Among this influx of orders, there’s been a strong mix of requests for homes in urban, suburban, and countryside locations. No matter the destination, Connect’s modular units can be delivered across the US using semi-trailer trucks, rail cars, or cargo ships.
All of these homes are built in Connect’s California factory using an “assembly-line construction” method. As a result, Connect is able to build a home every six days, while an entire home can be produced in 24 days, according to Leung. When the units are finished, Connect will deliver its homes 90% complete and will install them for its customers using a crane
Compared to traditional houses, Connect’s homes are more efficient – in terms of time, money, waste, and carbon – to build “by orders of magnitude,” Leung said. This eco-friendly angle can also be seen throughout its homes: Connect’s units come with insulation, systems focused on power efficiency, a roof with high solar reflectance, and LED fixtures.
The company has also received inquiries from colder travel hotspots like ski resorts, which benefit from Connect’s strong insulation, year-round construction capabilities, and shipment of nearly complete homes.
While Connect doesn’t build purely custom homes, the existing models are semi-customizable via different finishes and appliances. There are also different packages – including one for cold weather and another for smart home tech – to further personalize the space.
Connect’s units – which sit on steel frames – don’t look any different than a typical modern house. The company offers 14 models, ranging from the $202,700 460-square foot Connect 1, to the $997,000 3,200 square-foot Connect 10. It’s important to note that these prices include the estimated costs of both the home and “site work.”
Connect’s most popular model, the Connect 8, falls closer to the larger model at 2,560 square-feet. The two-story Connect 8 is a “quintessential family home” with its high-ceiling living room and entertainment spaces. The kitchen also flows into the back deck, creating an indoor-outdoor feel.
In total, the almost $814,000 home has three bedrooms and bathrooms. The second floor holds all three sleeping spaces, including the primary bedroom with an en-suite bathroom and walk-in closet. The top floor also has a second bathroom and a laundry room.
Heading downstairs, the lower floor holds the living and dining room, a pantry, and a bathroom.
All of this is lined with floor-to-ceiling glass windows to bring in as much natural light as possible.
According to Leung, the home’s success comes from its “versatile footprint” and its ability to fit in thin but long urban plots of land.
“It’s not your sprawling larger ranch home, which doesn’t always fit in urban settings, but it’s also equally good in the country,” Leung said. “We sell them everywhere.”