Gastroenterologists debunk 12 myths about indigestion and gut health

Following is a transcript of the video.

Austin Chiang: “Your stomach shrinks if you eat less.” Is that true?

Fola May: Myth!

May: “Jumping or exercising after eating will give you an appendicitis.”

Chiang: What? I have never heard of this. I’m tossing that one out.

Chiang: Ooh. So, “You need to wait 30 minutes to swim after eating.”

May: I caught myself almost saying it to my own children the other day, and then broke out into laughter, because it’s an absolute myth.

Chiang: Hi, I’m Austin Chiang. I’m an assistant professor of medicine at Jefferson Health in Philadelphia, and I’ve been practicing as a gastroenterologist since 2017.

May: My name is Fola May. I’m an assistant professor of medicine at UCLA Health. I’m a general gastroenterologist and have been practicing gastroenterology for the last six years. I love this field because it allows us to optimize people’s digestive health, and we get to prevent important cancers like colorectal cancer.

Chiang: And today we’ll be debunking myths about indigestion.

Chiang: “It takes years to digest gum.”

May: This is an absolute myth. And I remember this as a child, hearing that it takes seven years to digest your gum. The reality is that everything you eat, going in one end, is going to come out the other. The slight truth of the myth is that gum is insoluble. So we don’t have the enzymes to break down gum like we do other foods. But it doesn’t stay in your stomach for seven years. Just like everything else you eat, it gets emptied from the stomach usually within 30 and 90 minutes, and it comes out in your stool.

Chiang: “Smelly farts always means something is wrong.” I don’t know, Fola. Is there such a thing as a good-smelling fart?

May: I get this one a lot from my patients. So, everyone thinks that if your farts smell really bad, then there must be something wrong with the digestive tract. And it’s not true! Some of the most healthy foods that we eat, like fiber, broccoli, asparagus, cause the smelliest farts. I will say, though, that it is important to pay attention to whether there are other symptoms, particularly people who have lactose intolerance, which means that they don’t have the enzymes to digest milk products. And if you’ve noticed smelly farts over and over again after eating milk products or after having products like gluten frequently, then it’s probably worth looking into whether you have a food intolerance or a food allergy. The other symptoms to keep an eye out for are severe abdominal pain with your smelly farts, loose stools or diarrhea, fevers. This can indicate an abdominal infection.

Chiang: “You should be pooping every day.”

May: So, this is another unfortunate misconception that human beings have. It can be normal to have a bowel movement up to three times a day, and there are actually people who are normal who have bowel movements every three days, and anywhere in there in between can be normal. What I typically will tell my patients is that the most concerning thing is if you are having infrequent stools that are causing constipation-like symptoms. Straining a lot when they’re on the toilet bowl, have developed blood in their stools when they have a bowel movement. And that’s generally when we would prescribe a medication to help you have more frequent, yet gentle bowel movements.

Chiang: The reason why it’s important to sometimes get this checked out by a professional is because there are a lot of different causes for infrequent stools and constipations.

May: And then there’s the other end of the spectrum. Some people have what we call inflammatory bowel diseases. These are conditions that cause frequent stools but also blood in the stools, severe abdominal pain, and bloating, weight loss, fatigue, other manifestations throughout the body. And that’s concerning. So I usually like to tell people that it’s not the number of the bowel movements you’re having, it’s whether or not there are any of these concerning symptoms.

May: Myth or fact? “Only spicy foods cause ulcers.”

Chiang: If this were true, I’d be very sad, because I love spicy food and I eat spicy food all the time. Spicy food does not cause ulcers, but that doesn’t mean that spicy food doesn’t cause pain. What does cause ulcers can be a bacteria called H. pylori that can live under the surface of the lining of the stomach. And this can cause ulcers, as well as certain medications, like NSAIDs, which are basically those over-the-counter pain medications like Motrin, Advil. We want to be careful when we’re taking medications like that.

Stress typically does not cause ulcers, although it may make existing ulcers worse. There are certain conditions that are called stress ulcers, but this really applies to people who are very, very sick, like, hospitalized sick, and not the typical type of stress that we think of when we’re stressed out.

May: I think that is a common myth though, Austin, right? I mean, you hear people say all the time, “I’m so stressed I’m going to get an ulcer.” When I was younger, I would just listen to that statement. And now I kind of want to interrupt and say, “No, actually, that’s not how it works.”

Chiang: Exactly. But it doesn’t mean that stress doesn’t trigger, like, belly pain, because, you know, stress can certainly exacerbate and worsen those types of symptoms.

May: Absolutely. Absolutely.

Chiang: But yeah, in and of itself, it’s not going to cause an ulcer to just form out of nowhere.

May: Thank goodness, right?

Chiang: Yeah. We’d be seeing a lot more ulcers then.

Chiang: “Your stomach shrinks if you eat less.” Is that true?

May: Myth! This is part of what people think they can do to control their weight. There’s this misconception that if you eat less, your stomach will become smaller and then you won’t need as much food to survive and live your daily life. Unfortunately, it is very false. The size of the adult stomach stays approximately that size your entire life. The stomach is actually a pretty flexible organ, so it does expand when we eat big meals, but then it goes right back to its normal size when the stomach empties itself about 30, 90, 120 minutes later.

Chiang: Naturally, our stomachs won’t shrink, but there are procedures out there where we can actually reduce the volume of the stomach and then help patients lose weight that way. But that requires a procedure.

May: A good analogy is probably a rubber band, right? So a rubber band has a defined size and you can stretch it out if you have a big meal, but it will always go back to that size. And it’s not until you’re really pushing the limits over and over again that it starts to develop those little breaks, get a little bit wobbly and larger, but generally it has its innate size.

May: “Jumping or exercising after eating will give you appendicitis.”

Chiang: What? I have never heard of this. I’m tossing that one out. I have my handy-dandy plushy here. The appendix is this pocket that comes off of the beginning of the colon. Sometimes it can get inflamed or blocked off, and that’s called appendicitis. But exercising or jumping around after eating, no. We would be seeing people dropping like flies at the gym if that were the case.

May: First of all, that thing is really cute. And second of all, I agree completely. Can you imagine all the athletes that would be developing appendicitis?

Chiang: Most of the time it just comes about. There’s nothing that sort of leads up to it, it just suddenly happens.

May: And, luckily, appendicitis is something that’s very treatable.

Chiang: Ooh. So, “You need to wait 30 minutes to swim after eating.”

May: So, this is the hogwash that every parent has told every child. The reality is after you have a large meal, your body does shunt blood flow to your stomach and your digestive organs to help you digest this meal. And I think what’s happened is that people have then feared that because it’s shunting blood away from your arms and your legs and the large muscles that you need to swim, that if you immediately jump into a pool you won’t be able to swim or use your arms and legs to save yourself. But the reality is your body has enough blood flow to supply both your stomach and your digestive organs and your legs and arms. There are some people that will experience some abdominal cramping if they swim immediately after eating a big meal. And that’s just because the digestive muscles are already busy at work and you’re stressing them more by putting them under the exertion of being in a swimming pool. But I don’t think we need to worry about drowning risk here.

May: “Probiotics will fix your gut.”

Chiang: We wouldn’t have jobs if probiotics cured everything about the gut. I think what this statement is trying to get at is that there’s a lot about the gut microbiome, the bacteria that live in our gut, that can potentially impact our health. We simply just don’t know enough about it.

May: There is an actual bacterial environment that lives in your gut. Most of them are not bad bacteria. They’re good, healthy bacteria that you need to have normal bowel movements, to avoid pain and other diseases. But every once in a while, that can get imbalanced. So probiotics became really popular with this concept of resetting your microbiome. But the reality is that the science is so new in this area and there’s really very few conditions where we’ve figured out how to use probiotics the right way.

Chiang: And part of the reason behind this is because there’s very little regulation on probiotics by the FDA, for instance, there’s very little consistency in the formulations. We don’t know what dosage actually works for certain conditions as well. So there’s still a lot that we don’t know about probiotics.

May: I do think that for some people it has an impact, but it’s not a cure-all, and it doesn’t work for everyone.

May: Oh, good one. “‘I got food poisoning from the last thing I ate.'” In reality, it takes hours, right, for your stomach and your small bowel to process each meal. So it’s usually the second-to-last thing you ate. And I think there’s a big misconception about this, because patients will come in and swear that it was the breakfast they ate, and I tend to ask them, “Actually, what’d you have dinner the night before?” Or if they’re saying that they developed their symptoms in the evening, it’s, “What did you have at breakfast?” Because that might be the culprit. How bad is that word, by the way? “Food poisoning”?

Chiang: I know! Who came up with that? ‘Cause it’s not the food itself that’s causing the poisoning, right? The definition of food poisoning, first of all, is very broad. It can involve different types of bacteria, the toxins that they create, it can involve viruses. The key things are to rest and to try and stay hydrated. You want to start with one or two bland items and small bites of that to see if you tolerate it, and then in a few hours, maybe a few more bites. The last thing you want to reincorporate to your diet after a bad bout of food poisoning are lactose products, because the lactate enzymes that line your intestines are some of the last enzymes to come back and to repopulate. So you’re really not prepared to digest lactose-containing foods for a while.

Chiang: What? “Women don’t need regular colonoscopies”?

May: Is that what it says? I’m going to rip this one up. This one is absolutely a myth!

This is your colon. Unfortunately, a reasonable percentage of us will grow what we call polyps in your colon. They look like pimples, but the dangerous thing is that a small percentage of them, over years and years and years, can develop into colon or rectal cancer. Because unfortunately there’s been this myth that colorectal cancer only occurs in men. It’s important for women to know that colorectal cancer occurs in women as well. It follows just lung and breast cancer in being the most common cancers for women, and unfortunately it’s the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women. So all you women out there, get your colonoscopies. Everyone who is average risk for colorectal cancer, meaning that you don’t have a family history and meaning that you don’t have a predisposing condition for colorectal cancer, should start screening at age 45 or 50.

May: “‘I feel really bloated, so it must be IBS.'” To have a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, you actually have to meet defined criteria that have to do with your bowel movements and pain. But bloating itself doesn’t necessarily mean that you have irritable bowel syndrome.

Chiang: Bloating is so common. Having some bloating here or there is totally normal. That’s normal fluctuations depending on what we eat. It’s usually related to what we’re putting into our bodies.

May: Fiber, which we know is very helpful and very healthy, can cause increased bloating.

Chiang: There are other conditions that can also cause bloating, including bacterial overgrowth or certain intolerances like lactose intolerance. And, actually, there’s set criteria in how we define what IBS, or irritable bowel syndrome, is, and bloating isn’t technically part of that definition. It more depends on kind of the appearance or the form of the stool, the frequency of the stool, but not necessarily bloating per se.

Chiang: “‘I just know I have a gluten allergy.'” Oh, this is also a very good one, because everybody thinks that they have a gluten allergy, and oftentimes it’s not true. It’s really important to distinguish between celiac disease, which is an autoimmune disease that doesn’t allow you to digest gluten, from non-celiac gluten sensitivity. And those are the two most common things that people are confusing when they talk about gluten allergy.

So let’s talk about celiac disease first. It impacts the lining of your small bowel, and it makes it impossible for you to tolerate or digest gluten. But to have a formal diagnosis with this autoimmune condition, you need to have testing. The other thing we’ve seen recently, though, is that there are many people that don’t have a positive celiac test but still have some symptoms when they have food with gluten. So we don’t want people to be on a celiac diet unless they really have celiac disease. We want people to get the nutrition that their particular body needs to function and process normally. And unfortunately, we have such a problem in this country with inappropriate diets that people are putting themselves at harm.

Chiang: When you’re hearing bold health claims online, double-, triple-check, reach out to your doctors to ask whether or not what you’re reading is true, if there’s any science behind it. Look at the science yourself. Just keep asking questions. And we’re always happy to answer those questions and help out in whichever way we can.

May: The way that I think about it, everyone wants to be able to eat comfortably and to be able to poop. We give people that power to enjoy their food, to feel comfortable without abdominal symptoms, and to go on enjoying their life.

Read the original article on Business Insider

The 7 best diet and weight loss apps of 2021, according to a dietitian

Table of Contents: Masthead Sticky

  • If you want to pay more attention to what you’re eating, a food tracking or weight loss app can help.
  • While they’re not for everyone, weight loss apps are helpful for certain health or fitness goals.
  • The best apps track your daily food intake and give expert insight on how to be healthier.
  • We spoke to dietitian Samantha Cassetty about how weight loss apps can positively change your health.

While we are (thankfully) moving past the era of toxic diet culture and feeling like you need to limit what you eat, there are certain times you might want help tracking your food intake. Maybe you’re looking for accountability to get back on track after a year of emotional eating, to feel more energized throughout the day, to support your workout goals, or you’re under doctor’s orders to start eating healthier. Regardless, weight loss apps can help you go about food tracking in a healthful and sustainable way.

Read more: How to get your diet back on the healthy track while working from home during the pandemic, according to nutrition experts

“There are many free and paid apps to help you learn how to eat more healthfully,” Samantha Cassetty, RD, national nutrition and wellness expert with a private practice based in New York City, told Insider. “The most important thing is to find one that supports a variety of healthful foods in balanced amounts that are right for your needs.”

At the end of this guide, I’ve included tips on how a weight loss app can help, as well as the insight Cassetty shared on why making healthy changes takes more than just the help of an app.

Here are the best weight loss apps:

  • Best overall weight loss app: Noom
  • Best weight loss app for those on a budget: Weight Watchers
  • Best free weight loss app: MyNetDiary
  • Best weight loss app for fitness: MyFitnessPal
  • Best weight loss food tracking app: Lose It!
  • Best weight loss app for busy lifestyles: Rise
  • Best weight loss app for at-home cooks: Fooducate
Best overall


Noom distinguishes itself from other diet and weight loss apps by looking at your entire lifestyle rather than just food intake.

Pros: Comprehensive diet plan backed by nutrition experts, assesses a user’s entire health profile, offers a food log and calorie tracker

Cons: Expensive

Noom is unique in that it not only pairs you with a health and nutrition expert to craft a plan individual to you, but it also takes into account a variety of factors like age, height, weight, activity level, target goals, medical history, and personal goals. 

The program Noom creates for you suggests which foods to eat, how much physical activity to do, and other healthy habit reinforcement. The goal is to give you the tools you need to adjust your current lifestyle gradually, making small changes that can be sustained over time. This approach leads to better health and fitness all around, which makes it a more balanced option for those looking to lose weight in a healthy and sustainable fashion.

The Noom app includes features you’d expect, like a food log, calorie tracker, and an activity monitor. It also provides incentives for you to be more active but in a more mindful way, taking into account caloric intake, fitness levels, and a variety of variables.

The downside of Noom is that it’s pricey. But if you’re looking for a larger life change, it’s a great, expert-backed program.

Best on a budget

ww app

Weight Watchers has helped people lose weight for decades and does a great job of making the transition to the digital age.

Pros: Familiar diet plans, offers a barcode scanner for use at the store, has more than 8,000 recommended recipes, allows members to attend workshops and coaching sessions

Cons: App can be glitchy at times and can have trouble logging food

Weight Watchers WW app is designed to supplement its proven dietary plan by putting the resources members need right at their fingertips. That includes a massive database of rated foods using the Weight Watchers point system, putting less emphasis on calories and more on total awareness of exactly what foods you’re eating.

The app includes far more features than just a food-tracking database, too. It offers more than 9,000 healthy recipes, a barcode for scanning foods at the grocery store, and the ability to get advice from a diet coach at any time. Members can also connect with one another to offer advice and encouragement, while also earning a variety of tangible rewards — such as water bottles and wireless earbuds — just for leading a healthy lifestyle.

Weight Watchers members get access to the WW app as part of their benefits, or you can purchase a digital-only membership. This provides access to all of the app’s features but doesn’t allow digital-only users to attend workshops and coaching sessions. 

Best free app


If you’re comfortable managing your own food choices, MyNetDiary is an excellent option for free.

Pros: An excellent app for anyone on a budget, offers food and exercise tracking and a variety of meal planning options

Cons: The advanced tracking options are behind a paywall

While the app does have some premium features, MyNetDiary‘s free services are very good, too, and great for anyone on a budget.

Those features include food and exercise tracking, meal planning options, graphical charts to map your progress, daily analysis of eating habits, and even access to a large and active online community. And not only are these services free but they don’t require the user to create an account. That means your data stays completely anonymous.

Paying for the premium version of MyNetDiary unlocks a number of other useful upgrades, as well. They include compatibility with Fitbit devices, health tracking for those who are diabetic or pre-diabetic, and personalized diet advice from a nutritionist. Those are handy to have if you need them but aren’t necessary to see beneficial functionality from this app.

Best for fitness


MyFitnessPal encourages users to think about the things they eat, while also helping them become more active at the same time.

Pros: Offers a wide variety of cardio and strength workouts, has a database of over 11 million different foods, features a barcode scanner for use at the store, its recipe importer gives you info on custom at-home meals, free features

Cons: $50 annual membership required for the full suite of features

While many diet and weight loss apps focus on just eating healthy, you should also ramp up your exercise routine for the best results. That’s where MyFitnessPal comes in, acting as both a diet and an exercise coach.

MyFitnessPal comes with a database of more than 11 million foods, as well as a barcode scanner for adding entries to your food log. It includes a recipe importer for evaluating home-cooked meals, which is especially helpful when trying to get an accurate picture of your current eating habits.

Beyond those features, the app includes more than 300 cardio and strength workouts for a more well-rounded approach to your health and fitness. It even integrates with Apple’s HealthKit, as well as the MapMyRun, Garmin, and Fitbit apps to more accurately track steps and workout routines.

MyFitnessPal has a great online community to provide support, advice, and encouragement. While the premium membership is $10 a month or $50 a year, MyFitnessPal does have plenty of features for free.

Best for tracking food

lose it

Lose It! lets you quickly and easily input the foods you’ve eaten to calculate your caloric intake for the day — and the app is intuitive enough for anyone to use.

Pros: Easy to use food tracking, intuitive app, can take photos of your food to estimate calories, offers a social aspect to connect with other users, plenty of free features

Cons: App can be buggy, requires you to be highly specific about some foods

There are literally dozens of food tracking apps available for your smartphone but thanks to its versatility and smarts, Lose It! is our top pick. You’re able to easily add what food you ate today by selecting it from the app’s extensive database or by scanning the barcode on a product purchased at the store.

You can even take a photo of your meals in order to get an estimate of how many calories it contains. The app includes a helpful water tracking feature that reminds you to stay hydrated throughout the day, too. 

All of this functionality is included in the app for free but a $40 annual membership unlocks additional features like a Fitbit-compatible activity tracker, macronutrient goal setting, and access to a detailed and powerful meal planner.

An active community of users also provides a social aspect to using the app, which can be helpful when it comes to looking for support and feedback. The app even has weight loss games and challenges to take part in as well, which does a nice job of providing extra motivation.

Best for busy lifestyles


Rise is the food tracker that doesn’t require an extensive amount of time to use — even minimal input can provide users with immense benefit.

Pros: Doesn’t require a lot of effort to make use of its benefits, simplifies the diet process, makes use of an easy-to-use food photo system that tracks what you eat

Cons: Expensive at roughly $48 per month

Food tracking and weight loss apps can be a lot of work. But the Rise app requires minimal work from users while still providing plenty of helpful advice to assist in achieving their fitness goals.

With Rise, you won’t be scanning bar codes, searching through food databases, or entering individual ingredients into the app. Instead, you just snap a photo of your meal or snack and upload it to your account. Then, a personal nutritionist reviews the photo and offers an analysis based on the goals you’ve set. This not only provides helpful feedback but adds a measure of accountability that goes a long way towards keeping users on track.

While Rise takes the drudgery out of the process, the simplicity that it provides comes at a price with monthly fees start at around $48 per month. This does make it pricey for a dietary service accessed through an app, though it’s still much cheaper than paying for an on-call personal nutritionist — which is essentially what you get here.

Best for at-home cooks


Fooducate is the informational tool you need if you’re looking to improve your nutrition yet don’t know where to start.

Pros: An excellent informative tool to help people become more aware of their nutrition, uses an easy to understand grading system for a variety of foods, offers insightful tips on what to look out for when shopping

Cons: Food database isn’t entirely comprehensive (but gets updated often)

Fooducate is an app designed to help you make smarter decisions about your food as it suggests healthier alternatives to your favorite grub.

Using Fooducate is extremely easy, too. Simply scan the barcode on any product at the grocery store and it provides a letter grade for the nutritional value of that item ranging from A+ to D-. Accompanying that letter grade is an explanation of why the product received the grade it did, including valuable information about the nutritional content it offers.

The app also points out important things to be aware of, including whether or not a product contains added sugars, artificial coloring or sweeteners, or other unhealthy additives. This allows consumers to make more informed decisions at the grocery store, while also assisting with finding healthier alternatives.

Fooducate has other features beyond just scanning products at the grocery store. It also serves as a health tracker, offers insightful diet tips, and provides delicious and healthy recipes. But its engaged and active community is one of its best assets, with users sharing tips and suggestions with one another on a constant basis. That kind of support is an incredibly helpful feature for anyone struggling to eat healthier and lead a better all-around lifestyle.

How a weight-loss app can help

Considering you always have your phone with you, using an app to track your food and screen your grocery store purchases is ideal. Some of the apps that are available even create extensive meal plans, provide diet and exercise routines, or offer consultations from dietitians and nutritionists. Others simply track what you eat in order to raise awareness of the calories you’re taking in. Cassetty said there are benefits to both and that even basic food trackers are valuable.

“Free tools allow you to track your food intake, which is a form of self-monitoring that’s been found helpful for reaching or maintaining a comfortable weight,” she said. “They can also expose when you might be grazing or over-snacking, which happens when you’re spending more time working at home with a stocked kitchen.”

Why making healthy changes takes more than an app

While Cassetty said she finds plenty of value in the use of smartphone apps to track dietary intake, she also urges caution, saying that “unless you’re getting the tools and information you need to make lasting changes, it’s unlikely you’ll be able to maintain any weight you’ve lost.”

She recommended working on understanding how to balance meals so they fill you up while tasting great at the same time. She also stresses the importance of developing healthier coping strategies rather than turning to food when we’re bored, stressed, anxious, depressed, or even happy.

“Rather than focus on a goal weight, I think a better way to go is to focus on small steps you can take to create healthier habits,” Cassetty said. “Examples include, limiting soda, upping your veggie intake at lunch and dinner, cooking an extra meal or two, drinking more water, and aiming for 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night.”

Those are words of wisdom, no doubt, but Cassetty also expressed the importance of cutting ourselves some slack when things get especially stressful and difficult.

“I think it’s important to be flexible and compassionate with yourself during these challenging times,” she added. “You may not be able to eat as well as you’d like or maintain your healthy routines, and that’s alright. As long as you’re putting in some effort — versus none at all — it’s a step in the right direction.”

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We tried a fermentation-tracking device and highly recommend it to find out which foods are making you bloated

Following is a transcript of the video.

Michelle Yan: Burping, farting, bloating, diarrhea: We all experience these things. Some may know exactly what foods are causing them these problems, but others may not. Sure, generic lists on Google may help, but they’re not personal or quantifiable enough. This device, called FoodMarble AIRE, may give you a clearer idea of exactly what foods are causing your discomfort.

Kara Chin: My digestive problems include…

Gene Kim: Feeling gassy all the time.

Abby Narishkin: Constipation.

Manny Ocbazghi: Sharp pains in my stomach.

Abby: IBS.

Gene: And also violent diarrhea.

Michelle: So what exactly is this device?

James Brief: FoodMarble AIRE is a breath-analysis device that tracks a specific kind of digestion called fermentation. And fermentation’s a healthy part of digestion, but sometimes too much fermentation from certain foods can cause symptoms in a lot of people. Bloating, pain, gas, and even diarrhea.

Abby: My stomach does not respond well to things like onions and garlic.

Gene: Meat or oily foods.

Abby: Brussels sprouts.

Kara: If it says “sugar-free,” I know I shouldn’t have it.

Abby: If I eat an apple, game over. And avocados, sadly.

What could be causing these symptoms?

James: Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyols. It’s a fancy word that means some complex carbohydrates and not carbs like we think of like bread. FODMAPs are found in all kinds of fruits, dairy, vegetables, grains, and these nutrients, while very healthy, if they’re not absorbed properly in certain people, this fermentation causes a lot of the symptoms that people experience.

Manny: I don’t know exactly what I’m reacting to. It could be gluten. It could be dairy. So hopefully this test will help me figure that out.

James: So there’s two general ways that people can use this device. One, you can use it in your regular, everyday use. You can track your foods, track your symptoms, and then you take several breaths throughout the day, and then with our app’s food database, we can tell you which foods contain higher and lower amounts of FODMAPs.

The second way that people could use the app is that we optionally provide pure samples of FODMAPs. You mix it into a little bit of water, and then for three hours while you have an empty digestive system, except for this one FODMAP, we can test you and see if you’re fermenting a lot from this. It’s day one of this experiment.

Gene: I got some teriyaki chicken.

Kara: I got noodle soup.

Gene: Are you excited?

Kara: Uh, yeah, we’re gonna learn things.

Gene: Yeah, let’s do this. Let’s figure out what’s causing our digestive problems.

Manny: So my first week using AIRE has been pretty interesting.

Gene: So it felt like the device was accurately measuring my activity in the stomach.

Kara: My fermentation levels are really high after I’ve had pizza and pita chips and hummus.

Manny: One of the surprising results I got was when I went to Chipotle last week. I purposely stacked my bowl with like dairy products, and then I did my breath test probably about a half an hour later, and my fermentation score actually decreased from the morning.

Abby: I would eat the almonds, and this past week I’ve been recording it, and my fermentation score has been really high. So we asked why that might be happening, and it turns out that almonds are low FODMAP only in smaller quantities, which I have a problem with portion control.

Gene: When I eat meat with vegetables, it was actually fine. The levels would show a low indicator. But when I would eat meat with bread, like a sandwich or a hamburger, the levels were high.

Manny: So when you first download the app, it does tell you not to use the breath tests while you’re drinking. But I was still curious to see what it says, and my readings were like 10 out of 10, like off-the-charts red. But that does let me know that the app is working.

Gene: I tried the inulin elimination diet. I didn’t even know such thing existed before this. I came in thinking that meat is the main problem in my diet, but it turned out that it wasn’t necessarily meat. It was the things that I ate with meat, like bread, garlic, and onion.

Abby: So going forward, I’m gonna eat less almonds and definitely work on portion control.

Kara: I think I just will prepare for suffering whenever I have these foods that I love but know that my body doesn’t react well to.

Abby: I think I would recommend this device. Although it didn’t necessarily give me the answers that I wanted, I think it would be really helpful for someone who definitely has an intolerance to lactose or one of those four pillars and so that they can get a pretty solid answer on what they should avoid to eat.

James: Unfortunately, breath analysis is limited to fermentation-related issues. So if breath analysis and fermentation are not their cause of their problems, they should see a dietician, a healthcare professional, a gastroenterologist for further analysis that can help their issues.

Michelle: So be like, “This is Gene the farting machine.”

Gene: All right, you give me the cue.

EDITOR’S NOTE: This video was originally published in May 2019.

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A dietitian explains which non-dairy milk is best for you

Following is a transcript of the video.

Groetch: The rice milk and the coconut milk and the almond milk are very low in protein. So if you’re looking to get a protein source like a vegetarian or plant-based protein source, these are not very good.

Narrator: That’s registered dietician Marion Groetch. Today she’s gonna help us sort through all of these different non-dairy milks and tell us which ones might just be better for you.

In the last several years, the market for non-dairy milks has exploded, and that’s great for the some 65% of adults who are lactose intolerant, but with more than a dozen varieties now crowding the dairy aisle, it’s hard to know which one to choose. Ultimately, Groetch says, it comes down to what you’re looking for.

Groetch: So if you’re looking to get closest to cow’s milk, I would probably go with a soy milk just because it has more protein. It has about seven grams of protein per cup as opposed to eight grams in cow’s milk, and then oat milk is somewhere in between. About four grams of protein per cup of oat milk. Soy is high in protein because it comes from a bean, whereas oat comes from a grain, and it tends to have less protein in it. The protein in the soy milk is also more complete. If you’re looking to reduce your calories, almond milk might be a good choice. So the rice milk here is higher in calories or the highest in calories, and then we have oat, soy, coconut, and almond milk is usually the lowest in calories.

Narrator: But if you’re trying to watch your fat intake, you might actually want to avoid coconut milk.

Groetch: So soy has about four grams of fat per cup, and again, these are healthier fats than the fats that you might find in a 2% milk, but it’s equivalent in the amount of fat. Oat milk, about three grams. It depends on the brand. Coconut milk is a little bit higher. It’s about six grams of fat. I don’t really see the benefit to coconut milk. It’s higher in saturated fats, although now we know that the saturated fat in coconut is probably not as detrimental to cardiovascular health as we once thought, but I think the jury is still out, and I wouldn’t be taking a lot of saturated fats from coconut products right now.

Narrator: But when you’re choosing which milk to buy, there’s more to consider than just protein, calories, and fat.

Groetch: Most of them are fortified with vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin B12, but you have to purchase a fortified milk. So some are fortifying up to 45% of the daily value for calcium, whereas others are only fortifying up to 10%. So this rice milk is fortified with 30% of the daily value. So the daily value for calcium is 1,000 milligrams, and that covers most people. So 30% per cup would mean 300 milligrams of calcium per cup, and that’s equivalent to cow’s milk. Coconut milk, actually, is only fortified at 10%. So you’d only get 100 milligrams of calcium per cup. So it would be difficult to meet your calcium needs if you’re relying on a product like this for calcium. They’re mostly not fortified with other nutrients like potassium. Soy milk, actually, is a good source of potassium, but some of the others are not. So it really just depends on the milk and how it’s fortified. It depends on the brand.

Narrator: And that’s just it. Nutrients don’t just vary by type of milk, like almond or soy, but by brand, like Blue Diamond or Silk, and so do calories and fat. So the best way to choose the right milk is simple. Check out the label.

EDITOR’S NOTE: This video was originally published in March 2019.

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I ate nothing but ‘healthy’ fast food for a week – here’s what happened

America has an obesity problem, but there are more 200,000 fast foods restaurants dotted throughout the country. Customers have been moving towards places with healthier menus and many traditional chains are adding items to address this. I tried eating these “healthy” fast foods for an entire week. I had every meal at McDonald’s, Wendy’s, Taco Bell, Burger King, Subway, Dunkin’ Donuts or Chick-fil-A. Following is a full transcript of the video. 

Kevin Reilly: Fast food is cheap and convenient. But hidden in between the burgers and tacos are some “healthy” options: salads, grilled chicken, yogurts, oatmeal, power burritos. Doesn’t sound too bad, right? I spent a week eating nothing but these “healthy” fast foods and I lost six-and-a-half pounds. But even though I lost about a pound a day, it didn’t really go well.

I live in New York City, a place with every possible food you could want. Eating healthy here, it’s a breeze. But across America, there are more than 200,000 fast food joints, and they’re bringing in more than $200 billion a year in sales. And no matter where you go, you’re never far from a place like McDonald’s or Taco Bell. But in recent years, consumers want better, healthier choices, and the traditional fast food places have been losing customers to those fast casual healthy options.

The rules were pretty simple: Eat every major meal at a national fast-food chain and stick to the healthy options. McDonald’s, Wendy’s, Burger King, Taco Bell, Dunkin’ Donuts, Subway, and Chick-fil-A; nothing but them for a week. Yeah, I lost almost seven pounds, but let’s take a close look at the numbers.

On a normal day, I’m eating around 2,500 calories. An adult man should be having about 2,400 to 2,600 calories a day. But on this fast food plan, my calories plummeted. Most of these meals came in under 400 calories, and that was one of my first problems. I’d eat and just a couple hours later, I was starving. And I had days when I didn’t eat more than 1,000 calories.

Now, some of these meals were really good. My favorite was this grilled chicken market salad from Chick-fil-A. It had blueberries, strawberries, apples; it was delicious and it was actually healthy. However, a lot of the other salads from Burger King, McDonald’s, and Wendy’s were loaded with salt, often more than 50% of what I needed for the entire day, from a salad. In fact, excess salt was a problem the entire week. I thought I had hit the jackpot with Taco Bell’s al Fresco menu. They take off all the cheese and mayo-based sauces and replace it with lettuce and pico de gallo. One night I got tacos, another night I got a power cantina burrito, and these were meals with more protein than usual. So, I felt like I was getting enough food. They were good, too good. It was all salt. In fact, just one burrito had almost as much salt as I needed in just one day. The American Heart Association says we should limit our sodium to about 2,300 milligrams a day, but the ideal is closer to 1,500 milligrams a day, especially for a person like me with high blood pressure. But if you look at my sodium intake, it was high every day, yet I was barely getting the calories I needed. If I wanted to keep the sodium down, I was starving. If I wanted to feel full, salt through the roof. You see, that’s an issue in the fast food industry. Wendy’s even acknowledges on their website that there’s going to be a trade-off between salt and flavor.

It was weird. I didn’t feel healthy at all throughout the week, even though I was eating healthy foods and losing weight. And on the last day, I had this massive headache that was just infuriating. These places, they’re supposed to be tasty, cheap, and convenient. But it wasn’t cheap. Every healthy option was expensive, but left me hungry. For eight grilled nuggets and this tiny kale salad at Chick-fil-A, $12. For the power Mediterranean salad at Wendy’s, it was almost $8, yet I could get a cheeseburger, nuggets, fries, and a soda for only $4. That brings me to another problem. Walk into McDonald’s and you get hit with that sweet, sweet french fry smell, and I had to get a salad.

Would I recommend this to anyone? Nope, unless you’re stuck on the road with no other options. Though there was a bright spot: breakfast at Subway. They have these egg-white-and-cheese sandwiches, which I got covered in spinach and peppers. And let me tell you, it was good. But after all this, I just want a cheeseburger.

EDITOR’S NOTE: This video was originally published in May 2018.

Read the original article on Business Insider