Why it’s okay to eat the brown part of an avocado

  • Avocados, like apples, turn brown when exposed to air. It’s actually a chemical reaction and not a sign of spoiled avocado.
  • Compounds in the flesh are reacting with oxygen, with the help of enzymes, to produce brown pigments called melanin.
  • The brown part of an avocado might look unappetizing and can taste bitter, but it’s still safe to eat.
  • You’d have to leave an avocado out for a few days before it spoiled from oxidation.
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

Following is a transcript of the video.

If an avocado is brown on the inside, it might not look pretty and might taste bitter. It’s still safe to eat, but the less browning there is, the better.

Narrator: Would you eat this avocado? How about this one? They’re actually the same, just one’s been sitting out for a few hours. And sure, one doesn’t look as good, but that doesn’t mean you should just throw it out. In 1989, the average American ate about one pound of avocados a year. By 2017, that amount had increased sevenfold.

But as much as we like to eat them, the struggle with browning avocados is real. Some people might try to prevent it by putting the avocado pit in the bowl, but it does not work that way. Just like with apples, bananas, and potatoes, the flesh of an avocado browns when it’s exposed to oxygen in the air. It’s a process called oxidation, and it happens when the oxygen reacts with compounds called polyphenols with the help of enzymes called polyphenol oxidase. This damages the tissue of the flesh, in the process turning it brown. But the brown color is not a sign that it’s spoiling. You’d have to leave it out for a few days before it spoiled from oxidation. That brown color is actually from a nontoxic chemical called melanin. It shows up in everything from fruit to the iris in your eyes.

Needless to say, that bowl of brown avocado won’t hurt you. However, the more oxidation that takes place, the more tissues it damages. For example, bruising or chilling an avocado for too long can lead to significant oxidation, which actually damages so much tissue that it changes the texture and flavor of the fruit so that it’s mushy and bitter. But a little browning won’t make a difference. To prove it, we did an experiment. We served green avocados and avocados that were left to brown for a few hours.

Normal Avocado:

Gina Echevarria: “Okay, tastes like a normal avocado, I think.”

Abby Tang: “I don’t like that one. I don’t know why. I just like, it tastes a little bad.”

Clancy Morgan: “Pretty strong taste, I would say. Pretty strong avocado, earthy taste. But yeah, it tastes very ripe.”

Echevarria: “Yeah, pretty standard avocado.”

Tang: “It tastes like a regular avocado but rotten. Why did you feed me a rotten avocado?”

Brown Avocado:

Echevarria: “I feel like that one actually tastes a little bit better.”

Morgan: “Oh. Oof.”

Tang: “This one doesn’t taste rotten, so that’s good.”

Morgan: “Okay, that is much more ripe, super mushy.”

Echevarria: “The other one kind of just tasted like wet paper, and this one actually tasted like something.”

Tang: “This one’s fine, I like it enough. It’s an avocado. They taste the same other than one tasted older.”

Cameraperson: “And that’s the first one?”

Tang: “The first one tasted older. It was, like, sour. And the second one tasted like a regular avocado.”

Narrator: How fast your avocado browns depends on the environment, like how much oxygen is in the air, what the temperature is, and how acidic it is. Warmer temperatures accelerate the chemical reaction, turning your avocado brown faster. But if you squirt some citrus on the top, the acidity prevents oxidation, and you can keep it looking fresher for longer. Either way, even though we couldn’t agree on which tasted better, both were perfectly edible. So next time you have some old avocado, don’t just throw it out. And if the unsightly brown ruins you’re appetite, just give it a quick stir, and voila.

EDITOR’S NOTE: This video was originally published in January 2019.

Read the original article on Business Insider

Why avocados are so expensive

  • Avocado has become one of the world’s trendiest foods, but they require an extraordinary amount of costly resources and labor in order to grow.
  • Avocado prices have rocketed in recent years by up to 129%, with the average national price of a single Hass avocado reaching $2.10 in 2019, almost doubling in just one year.
  • We break down what makes avocados so expensive.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Following is a transcript of the video.

Narrator: Avocado has become one of the world’s trendiest foods. As the poster child of millennial healthy eating, this superfood is now a mainstay for foodies everywhere. But have you noticed your avo on toast is costing more and more? Avocado prices have rocketed in recent years by up to 129%, with the average national price of a single Hass avocado reaching $2.10 in 2019, almost doubling in just one year. So, why are avocados so expensive?

Archaeologists in Peru have found domesticated avocado seeds buried with Incan mummies dating back to 750 BC. But it was the Aztecs in 500 BC who named it āhuacatl, which translates to “testicle.” When Spanish conquistadors swept through Mexico and Central America in the 16th century, they renamed it aguacate. The farming of aguacate developed over the next few hundred years, predominantly in Central America and South America. But consumption of the “alligator pear” outside of these regions before the late 19th century was almost nonexistent.

The commercialization of aguacate began in the early 1900s but was focused on branding avocados as a delicacy for the wealthy, like this advert in The New Yorker from 1920, which declared them as “The aristocrat of salad fruit.” But a selection of Californian growers realized that the hard-to-pronounce aguacate was off-putting for the mass market, so they formed the California Avocado Association. By the 1950s, production scale grew, and avocado prices fell to about 25 cents each. Popularity increased further with the wave of inter-American immigration in the ’60s, as Latin Americans brought their love of avocados with them to the US. But as demand increased, supply had to keep up, and the true difficulties of yielding large-scale avocado crops began to show. Avocado orchards require an extraordinary amount of costly resources in order to flourish.

Gus Gunderson: There are multiple inputs that avocados require, whether it’s water, fertilizer, pruning, pest control, the sunburn protection of trees. All those go into making your chances better of having a very good-quality crop. When we decide to plant an avocado orchard, we’ll plant trees that come from certified nurseries. We have to place our orders years in advance. On average, if we’re producing 100,000 pounds per acre, that takes about a million gallons of water, so 100 gallons per pound, so it’d be about 50 gallons per 8-ounce fruit. But that’s dependent on what mother nature will throw at you, you know, we have wind, we have intense sun. It’s really hard for a grower to manage the unmanageable things that will affect a crop.

Narrator: The surge in popularity of avocados stalled during the fat-fighting frenzy of the 1980s, with an average of only 1 pound per capita being consumed in America by 1989. The decade’s low-fat obsession drove consumers away from avocado because of its high fat content, without really understanding the nutritional truth hidden within.

Hazel Wallace: When it comes to fat in food in general, people tend to get a little bit concerned because we often hear in the media that fat isn’t good for us. But the type of fat that’s in avocados is monounsaturated fat, which is actually often deemed healthy fat or heart-healthy fat, so while there is a lot of fat in avocados, it’s actually quite good fat.

Narrator: Avocado started its meteoric comeback at the turn of the millennium, and it was helped by an unlikely political decision. In 2005, the US Department of Agriculture lifted a 90-year-old ban to allow the importation of Mexican avocados to all 50 states. Initially, this decision angered Californian growers, who feared the move could slash local growers’ sales by as much as 20%.

Harold Edwards: What actually had transpired and took place was, as that Mexican supply became much more prevalent and available, retailers got behind marketing and selling avocados, food service providers, restaurants started putting it as permanent parts of their menus, and demand started to boom because the inconsistent supply chains before were now consistent, and consumers were allowed to enjoy avocados every day of the year.

Narrator: The biggest day of the avocado calendar became Super Bowl Sunday, when it’s now estimated that almost 200 million pounds of avocados are eaten during the big game in America. But if you take a moment to consider the resources needed to produce that amount, you can start to understand avocados’ elevated prices. According to experts, it takes roughly 270 liters of water to grow a pound of avocados. So 200 million pounds could require as much as 54 billion liters of water, which means droughts or heat waves can have devastating consequences on the avocado industry. In fact, that’s exactly what’s been happening in California for the last seven years, with the Sunshine State only recently being declared drought-free in 2019, which goes a long way to explaining record avocado prices. In some countries, like Chile, avocado cultivation is being blamed for exacerbating droughts, as lush green orchards overlook dry riverbeds.

Perhaps the biggest reason for avocados’ rise to dominance is the emergence of the clean-eating lifestyle. No longer just a chip dip for special occasions, this superfood can be found in a plethora of recipes in cafés and restaurants everywhere around the world. And those who are eating them are really keen for you to know about it. Just type #avocado into Instagram, and you’ll be hit with over 10 million search results. But is the glorification of avocado justified?

Wallace: There’s quite a big hype around avocados, but it actually is quite justified when it comes to how nutrient-dense this food is. There’s not many foods that actually replicate it in terms of a nutritional profile. When it comes to calling something a superfood, I’m not really for that label. Avocados are definitely a good food to include in your diet, but like I said, you’re not really missing out if you don’t like them or if you can’t eat them for any reason. Monounsaturated fats, we can find that in things like olive oil and olive, nuts, and seeds. The vitamins and minerals, we can find that in other green vegetables, so spinach and broccoli and things like that. So there’s ways of getting those nutrients in without having avocado.

Narrator: All of this produce requires an astonishing amount of labor. Even once grown, pruned, and picked, avocados need costly distribution methods in order to be delivered fresh and ripe to far-flung corners of the world.

Gunderson: If you’re living in Philadelphia, right? You wanna buy a ripe avocado in Philadelphia? What they do is they ship green avocados from California to Philadelphia, they send them to the ripening center, they warm them up and get ethylene in them, so they all ripen, and then, when they’re moved out to the retail stores, you’re actually buying something that’s almost ready to eat or ready to eat. ‘Cause if you were to buy a green avocado that’s shipped straight from California to your market, you would have to ripen it yourself over a seven- to 10-day period, and most consumers are a little more anxious for their avocado toast than waiting 10 days. [laughs]

Narrator: With prices so high, the commodity of avocados has attracted a spate of thefts from orchards and delivery trucks worldwide. In New Zealand, armed night patrols and electric fences have been introduced after a grower in Northland had 70% of his orchard stolen. There’s even further grim reading for avocado lovers. In Michoacán, where 80% of Mexico’s avocados originate, cartels run a so-called “blood avocado” trade, violently enforcing a nonnegotiable extortion fee from farmers based on the size of their land and the weight of their crop.

Some restaurants have begun an avocado boycott, as we all weigh the ethics behind our eating habits. Experts suggest that water shortages could affect 5 billion people by 2050, and rainfall in the so-called drought belt, which includes Mexico and South America, is predicted to decline. But whilst evidence of environmental degradation is mounting, the avocado industry is still growing along with consumer demand. In certain places, the sustainability of avocado production will become untenable.

EDITOR’S NOTE: This video was originally published in October 2019.

Read the original article on Business Insider

You can finally add avocado to your Shake Shack burger

Shake Shack's new avocado and bacon burger and sandwich.
Shake Shack’s new avocado and bacon burger and sandwich.

  • Shake Shack has added two new limited-edition avocado and bacon items: a sandwich and a burger.
  • Both come with avocado slices and applewood-smoked bacon, and are part of Shake Shack’s spring menu.
  • You can also add avocado to any other Shake Shack burger or sandwich on the menu.
  • See more stories on Insider’s business page.

Shake Shack has finally added avocado to its menu.

You can have it in one of two new avocado and bacon dishes, or, for the first time, add it to any other burger or sandwich on the menu.

Shake Shack launched its Avocado Bacon Menu Wednesday. You can order either a burger or a sandwich with freshly-sliced avocado and Niman Ranch applewood-smoked bacon.

The burger comes a Shake Shack patty, while the sandwich adds a crispy chicken breast, lettuce, pickles, and buttermilk herb mayo to the avocado-bacon combo.

Shake Shack's new avocado and bacon burger and sandwich.
Shake Shack’s new avocado and bacon burger and sandwich.

Prices depend on where you are, but at the Flatbush restaurant in Brooklyn, New York, the burger costs $7.89 for a single and $10.69 for a double, while the sandwich costs $8.79. Adding avocado slices to other menu items costs $1.25.

The two new dishes are available until June 30 at all US locations, but Shake Shack told Thrillist that the avocado add-on option was here to stay, and that avocado was one of the chain’s most requested additions.

Avocado has boomed in popularity in recent years, causing prices to soar, and it has become an embodiment of millennial culture thanks to memes about avocado toast. The food industry has tried to find creative ways to serve avocado beyond toppings and as guacamole, and some restaurants even base their entire menu on the green fruit.

Read the original article on Business Insider